Security Blog  - Crack Key For U

that security firm Palo Alto Networks shared exclusively with CNN. key data from US defense contractors and other sensitive targets. Both of these keys have Near Field Communication (NFC) functionality, which allows you to use it with most mobile devices by simply tapping. Ransomware is malware that locks your computer and mobile devices or encrypts your electronic files. When this happens, you can't get to the data unless you.

Security Blog - Crack Key For U -

Chapter 2. Creating an Activation Key for Virtual Machines

Use this procedure to create an activation key with auto-attach enabled and no subscriptions attached. When you register virtual machines using this activation key, the virtual machines inherit a subscription from their hypervisor if that hypervisor has a host-based subscription attached.

For more information about activation keys, see Managing Activation Keys in the Content Management Guide.


  1. In the Satellite web UI, navigate to Content > Activation keys and click Create Activation Key.
  2. In the Name field, enter the name of the activation key.
  3. Ensure the Unlimited Hosts check box is selected. Alternatively, if you want to set a limit, clear the Unlimited hosts check box, and in the Limit field, enter the maximum number of virtual machines you can register with the activation key.
  4. In the Description field, enter a description for the activation key.
  5. From the Environment list, select the environment to use.
  6. From the Content View list, select a Content View to use.
  7. Click Save.
  8. When the new activation key appears in the Activation Keys window, click the name of the key.
  9. Click the Subscriptions tab.
  10. Ensure that Auto-Attach is set to Yes. If it is not, click the edit icon, select the check box, and click Save.

Do not add any subscriptions to this activation key.

For CLI Users

  1. Create the activation key:

    # hammer activation-key create \ --name "VM_Activation_Key" \ --unlimited-hosts \ --description "For VMs to inherit a VDC Subscription" \ --lifecycle-environment "Environment_Name" \ --content-view "CV_Name" \ --organization "My_Organization"
  2. Enable auto-attach on the activation key:

    # hammer activation-key update --name "VM_Activation_Key" \ --organization "My_Organization" --auto-attach true

How to remove Activation Lock on iPhone, iPad, Mac, more

Having trouble with a locked Apple device? Follow along for how to remove Activation Lock on iPhone, iPad, Mac, and Apple Watch. We’ll look at several steps including an Activation Lock web tool from Apple that’s new for 2021.

Activation Lock is a security feature that is turned on when Find My is enabled. Here’s how Apple describes it:

Activation Lock helps you keep your device secure, even if it’s in the wrong hands, and can improve your chances of recovering it. Even if you erase your device remotely, Activation Lock can continue to deter anyone from reactivating your device without your permission. All you need to do is keep Find My [device] turned on, and remember your Apple ID and password.

This is different than an iOS/Apple Watch device passcode or your Mac’s password. You’ll see a screen like the image above asking for the Apple ID email and password if you’re having trouble with Activation Lock.

How to remove Activation Lock on iPhone, iPad, Mac, Apple Watch

  1. If you can’t remember your Apple ID email, look it up here
  2. If you can’t remember your Apple ID password, reset it here
  3. If you can’t remember your security questions to reset your Apple ID password, call 800-APL-CARE (800-275-2273) in the US or reach out via to see if there are other options to recover your account
  4. If you’re in the US, there’s a new Activation Lock web tool toward the bottom of the landing page, there’s an option to “Start an Activation Lock support request. Here are the conditions:
    • You must be the owner of the device – Proof of ownership documentation is required. Proof of ownership must include the product serial number, IMEI, or MEID.
    • Your data on the device will be erased – If Apple unlocks Activation Lock on your device, all files and data stored on your device will be permanently erased. Please note, restoring your device from a local backup will re-enable Activation Lock.
    • We can’t unlock a managed device – If your device is owned by a business or educational institution, please contact your IT department or manager. We also do not accept bulk requests.
    • Your device must not be in Lost Mode.
  5. In countries where the new Activation Lock tool isn’t available, visit an Apple Store with proof of purchase, it may be possible remove the Activation Lock, but the device will be erased in the process

Outside of the steps above, there aren’t really any ways to remove Activation Lock on Apple Devices. There are instances of third-party companies popping up who offer device unlocking services like GrayShift. However, these options are usually cost thousands of dollars, are often intended for law enforcement, and Apple can render the exploits useless with a software update.

One exception is DriveSavers, who claims to have a consumer focused unlocking service for Apple devices. However, no pricing is listed on the website, and we can’t vouch for it in any way. Keep in mind most other third-party “unlocking services” will either be scams or temporary fixes.

The best solution is to work through the four steps above to recover your Apple ID and disable Activation Lock legitimately.

To read more about Activation Lock, check out Apple’s support doc here.

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Zonal Architectures Play Key Role In Vehicle Security

The automotive ecosystem is starting to shift toward zonal architectures, making vehicle functionality less dependent on the underlying hardware and allowing more flexibility in what gets processed where.

The impact of that shift is both broad and significant. For carmakers, it could lead to hardware consolidation and more options for failovers in case something goes wrong with any system in the vehicle. Past designs required a dedicated electronic control unit (ECU) for every vehicle function, and offered few options other than redundancy, which is expensive and adds weight. But a zonal approach also changes how security is implemented, and whether that will make a vehicle more or less secure may take years before anyone has conclusive answers.

“In the past, there was no flexibility in the system,” said Robert Schweiger, director of automotive solutions at Cadence. “For each function, there was one hardware box dedicated to the anti-lock braking, or window lifting, for instance. It was dedicated, and there was no flexibility.”

Fig. 1: Functional safety electronics in action. Source: Cadence
Fig. 1: Functional safety electronics in action. Source: Cadence

In a zonal architecture, the central compute unit is surrounded by zonal controllers, which also have a lot of compute power. Certain functions running on the central compute are assigned to run on a particular zonal controller, to perform pre-processing on the zonal controller. That pre-processed data is then passed to a central compute unit to do something else.

“This gives the flexibility to leverage a very powerful hardware architecture for all kinds of things, and allows an additional aspect of consolidating hardware. Not only consolidating functions, but consolidating hardware to more powerful boxes, which leads to cost savings. Cost savings is always a key aspect in automotive that shouldn’t be neglected,” he explained.

Additional scalability in either direction comes by adding additional zonal controllers, or removing some, for entry level cars, while still having the flexibility to assign certain functions to the hardware.

Security concerns
In essence, moving to a zonal architecture means replacing various, loosely-coupled domain-specific data paths with a networking infrastructure that acts like a data superhighway, with access points in each zone, explained Roman Pallierer, director, automotive networks at Elektrobit. This means data packages now can be easily routed to any point in the network.

“While such seamless ‘anything-anywhere’ communication offers many benefits and helps to reduce costs, it adds the potential for new security breaches,” Pallierer said. “For security reasons, not every part of the network should be able to freely communicate with another part of the network. Communication to a functional unit dedicated to autonomous driving, for example, must be restricted by additional security mechanisms.”

The goal from a security standpoint is to wrap everything in layers of security, rather than just focusing on a subsystem, while allowing some flexibility in how to defeat an attack.

“It’s cybersecurity at the IP level, at the SoC level, at the board level, different levels within the different software modules,” said Kurt Shuler, vice president of marketing at Arteris IP. “It must be a real ‘belt-and-suspenders’ approach.”

The automotive industry is starting to leverage standards developed in conjunction with organizations like SAE, ISO, and IEEE, an indication this market is taking security very seriously.

“It’s like insurance,” Shuler said. “‘Nobody knows about it, nobody cares, nobody’s going to be able to tell if it’s there. I invested all this money in it, but nobody took my cars hostage or put ransomware on my PC, so I invested it for nothing.’ However, with something like this, when it gets coverage in the press that somebody is able to hack into something, that is going to kill the industry’s ability for a certain period of time to be able to bring these new technologies to market. People do have an incentive, if only for that reason, not the fact that ‘Hey, you’re going to get sued because you didn’t have cybersecurity.”

This is particularly important as a slew of new technologies are incorporated into new vehicles. “You only have one time to make a first impression,” he said. “You’re trying to change human behavior. If it’s really easy to hack into, say, an autonomous truck and turn it into a terrorist vehicle, or some kid just does something stupid with it for fun, that’s going to create press. And that’s going to stop these companies from wanting to deal with this technology.”

This doesn’t mean a zonal architecture solve all problems. But it does provide options for improving security over time as new vulnerabilities comes to light.

“If you look at the way zonal architectures are being developed today, by and large the idea is to re-use the ECUs for braking, steering, that sort of thing, as is, as much as possible,” said David Fritz, senior director for autonomous and ADAS at Siemens Digital Industries Software. “The central compute does all the additional compute that didn’t have to be done before. Then everything goes out to the zone, and the zone re-uses the hardware that exists. It’s an intermediate step. It is a practical step, because you can get the intelligence of Level 4 and Level 5 autonomous, but you don’t have to worry about the mechatronic aspects and redesigning that.”

For some companies, even that is too onerous. “There’s no reason why the logic for handling the brake calipers can’t be done in central compute, and then you’re connected directly up to the actuator itself,” Fritz said. “So they’re looking at sensors and actuators, with Automotive Ethernet connections. In the case of how they’re done today, the vulnerability of an intermediate-step zonal architecture is exactly the same kind of vulnerabilities that you have in conventional automobiles, so there’s not really a benefit there. On the other hand, once they get all the way to Automotive Ethernet, all the way to the actuator itself, then the only way to invade the system is through the equivalent of firewalls and things like that, which you put in the central compute system. In the end, you will have a much more secure system than you have now, even though it’s zonal, because the zone itself uses that same kind of interface. All that’s being done in hardware, but not software, because you can’t really crack the hardware but you can crack software. So it’s a mixed bag.”

There is no consistent approach to security, in part because new threats are constantly popping up and in part because automotive architectures have been in such flux.

“Security means something different for each company, and everyone has their own idea how to realize a super secure system that goes along with safety because there is no security without safety, and vice versa,” said Cadence’s Schweiger. “If a system is unsecure, and I can manipulate the braking system, then it’s longer safe. If you listen to security specialists, they always talk about the surface of attack. The more connectivity provided to the outside, the more options attackers have to the system. If there is vehicle-to-vehicle communications or vehicle-to-infrastructure communications, or if there is cloud access, or Ethernet in the car and the Ethernet wires can be accessed, that could also potentially lead to a path to sneak into the system. If it is a very configurable, highly-connected system, of course there must be more potential to break into the system.”

What carmakers do agree on, though, is the need to build in security as part of the architecture, rather than trying to layer it on top of an existing design. “Security is not one of those things that you can add on later,” said Chris Clark, automotive solutions architect at Synopsys. “So even if I have a traditional model today, or I go to a zonal model in the future, I have to build in that security. And therefore, I do inherently get the safe features of a good cybersecurity practice and the well-developed infrastructure.”

Security extends beyond passenger cars. Trucking is getting its share of attention, as well, and in that segment, the considerations are different.

“When we think about our consumer vehicles, they’re really standalone,” Clark said. “We have an over-the-air update capability where we get information updates to the car and address cybersecurity issues. Heavy trucking is going to be the same way. There will be those exact same capabilities and solutions. The difference is, we always think about the truck, we don’t think about the trailer. In order to reach the level of efficiency that will be necessary, trailers are going to start getting some smarts along with them, as well. They’re going to have to participate in the overall braking plan, whether it’s a refrigerated unit or a regular unit, along with advanced features like weight load balancing and management. There are electronics in all of those components, and it’s much easier to tamper with a trailer that’s going to get connected to a heavy truck, and have physical access to that heavy truck’s internal network.”

It will remain the OEM’s responsibility to ensure the robustness of the heavy truck, and that doesn’t change. “What does change and is still up for debate and discussion, is who is now responsible for the overall cybersecurity posture of the entire vehicle, and that’s not been answered yet,” Clark said.

This also means that from an industry perspective, there are still unanswered questions about how to roll out zonal architectures on an ecosystem level. Dave Priscak, vice president of applications engineering at onsemi, said a zonal architecture may make sense for one OEM, but this is very difficult to discern from an industry perspective.

“There are a lot of advantages to looking at your sensors in a zonal way,” Priscak said. “By having grouping, which we talk about a lot because we have both the imaging as well as lidar, there are advantages to having these types of sensors more tightly coupled, and also a little more autonomous in their zone, to try to take some of the heavy lifting off the central brain.”

Architecturally speaking, there are a lot of challenges to this. “We haven’t seen much change in the space because what you’re really asking for is all the companies that make products into the space to change their interface,” he said. “So even if you get an OEM that says, ‘This is how we want to architect the car,’ you have to get all the Tier 1s on board. Everybody has to agree that is how they’re going to develop the interfaces for these products so they fit together. I can see it occurring from a micro level, but it’s going to take a force of nature for one of the OEMs to say, ‘This is what we’re going to do,’ because it’s not natural. Currently, most cameras speak low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS), or maybe coaxial cable. And if we’re going to zonal architecture, it may go to Ethernet, which means now everything that’s on the Ethernet drop has to change interfaces. These big challenges take an awful lot of effort to change.”

Case in point: “We’ve been talking about going from CAN to Ethernet for, what, five years now? There hasn’t been a lot of movement because it takes both halves to agree,” Priscak said. “Things are changing but in automotive, it’s a really slow change. We don’t make it any easier because it gets more and more complicated every year we add more and more technology, more and more semiconductors. That makes it harder to get to a standard.”

When the advantages outweigh the cost of making changes, then those changes will be implemented more widely. “To make autonomous vehicles a reality, we have to cut down on the computing required to make this practical,” he said. “Zonal architectures have to occur at some point in order to offload some of the deep thinking of the central host computer, and have more autonomy on the zones to be able to detect objects and other things so that you just send a warning to the big brain versus having to send all the raw data to the big brain for it to make one decision based on all the streams of data. Right now things are okay because we’re not in autonomous mode. So we’re able to look at things independently, such as lane guidance as its own thing, IP protection as its own thing. But when you start putting this all together, that’s where you end up with the giant Cray computer in the trunk.”

Securing a complex system by design is the key here.

“If you are using a secure-by-design approach, you can use a domain controller approach, or a zonal architecture approach,” said Moshe Shlisel, CEO of GuardKnox. “As long as you don’t have an architecture where the subnet that contains the brakes ECU has a connection to the internet, as long as you don’t have such weird architectures, and you take into account those issues, then you have a secured architecture. However, a zonal architecture is much more efficient, normally from the architecture itself, but also from the lifecycle cost perspective because if you don’t need to have a recall, or if you are using predictive maintenance, because there is a connectivity and monitoring, and you understand what’s going on in the vehicle, you gather the data, you’re able to predict, and take care of those issues before it becomes a mass problem, there you go. Put aside the fact that we know that trucks for sure will be connecting to infrastructure, which is another area. If you’re building it correctly, then it will not only be cost effective, it will not be only doing its job, it will be secured, as well.”

>Fig. 2: Zonal architecture diagram using a tree topology. Source: GuardKnox
Fig. 2: Zonal architecture diagram using a tree topology. Source: GuardKnox

Elektrobit’s Pallierer agreed. “I would not say a zonal architecture allows better security, but rather it enforces a better level of security concepts. The (bad) design approach, ‘security by obscurity,’ does not work in zonal architectures. There is a significant need to explicitly plan the routing paths and determine what security measures should be applied to these. Ethernet switches play a key role in doing so, and therefore, they need to be smart. They require software-hardware integration to achieve the necessary performance while being flexible to incorporate ever-increasing functionality including security. The good news is these security concepts are not limited to zonal architectures, but also can be applied on older automotive architectures that do not enforce them, but allow them.”

OEMs and Tier 1s must have solid security strategies to protect vehicles, and that requires the ability to make changes even to vehicles in the field to keep them secure throughout their lifetimes.

“We talk about autonomous driving cars, but imagine if somebody can hack the car and take over the control,” Schweiger said. “This is probably the horror scenario of all the OEMs. Security is definitely something that needs to be addressed right in the beginning of your architecture, as well as safety. It doesn’t work if you have it as an afterthought. ‘Now I have done my chips. Let’s think about how I can protect it.’ That doesn’t work.”

Shifting Auto Architectures
What changes when cars are designed around the movement of data.
Data Centers On Wheels
Automakers shifting to HPC chips for improved performance and lower system cost.
Will Automotive Ethernet Win?
Why it’s so hard to provide a definitive answer, and what are the other contenders.
Competing Auto Sensor Fusion Approaches
Cost, data volume, and complexity drive multiple solutions.
Automotive Knowledge Center
Top stories, videos, blogs, white papers and special reports on automotive electronics

Tags:Arteris IPautomotiveautomotive EthernetCadenceCadence Design SystemsECUECU SoCECU SoCsECUsElektrobitGuardKnoxIEEEISOlow-voltage differential signalingLVDSMentorOnsemiSAEsecuritySiemens Digital Industries SoftwarestandardsSynopsyszonal architectures

Ann Steffora Mutschler

Ann Steffora Mutschler

  (all posts)
Ann Steffora Mutschler is executive editor at Semiconductor Engineering.


What’s happening at Nest?

Learn about Google Nest, account changes, Works with Nest, and more.

Last Updated November 27, 2019

We’re adding new solutions to make Works with Google Assistant an even more flexible platform, grounded in security and safety. That includes offering three additional ways to give you the integrations you’ve told us are important combined with protections to keep your data private and secure: the Device Access Program, Home Routines and Device Access for Individuals. Here’s what you should know about our partners and your integrations:

  • With the Device Access program, we are enabling qualified partners to request secure access and control of your Nest devices in their apps and solutions, providing you more choices to control your home.
  • Routines allow you to automate smart home experiences, and we’re expanding the Works with Google Assistant capabilities with Home Routines that will give you more flexibility to get the most out of your smart home devices. These routines will work with your devices to know if you are Home or Away. For example, when it’s clear there’s nobody home, a Home Routine can turn down your thermostat, turn off your lights, and run your smart vacuum.
  • We’ll also invite smart home developer enthusiasts to participate in our Device Access for Individuals sandbox, allowing you to directly control your own Nest devices for your private integrations and automations.

Read our blog to learn about these additions to Works with Google Assistant and all the ways we are creating a helpful home. As a developer, you can find more information on our Device Access site. Check the page for the latest updates.

Since Nest joined Google’s hardware team last year, we’ve been working to make the smart home less complicated, and well, more helpful. A home where products are easy to set up, simple to manage and work seamlessly together. Today, we’re committing to that goal by bringing together all Nest and Home products under the Nest brand. Introducing Google Nest.

We’re reimagining how technology and services can deliver simple and helpful experiences in your home to do more for you and your family. Over the coming months, you’ll begin seeing changes across our products, accounts, services, and policies as we bring everything together under Nest.

Moving forward, Nest and Google Home devices and services will share these things:

One Google Account to manage Nest and Google Home devices

Over the next few months, users with Nest Accounts will be invited to migrate to Google Accounts, benefiting from industry-leading protections and a single account across the Nest and Google Home apps, and all of Google’s other products. It also means Nest and Google Home devices and services can work even better together. Read the Account Migration FAQs below.

One third-party device ecosystem

We want to unify our efforts around third-party connected home devices under one developer platform – a one-stop shop for both our developers and our customers to build a more helpful home. Moving forward, we’ll deliver that single experience through the Google Assistant. We’re committed to supporting the Works with Nest (“WWN”) integrations we think you value most and minimizing disruptions during this transition. Your existing devices and integrations will continue working with your Nest Account, but you won’t have access to new features that will be available with a Google Account. And we’ll stop accepting new WWN connections on August 31, 2019. Once your WWN functionality is available on the Works with Google Assistant (“WWGA”) platform, you can migrate with minimal disruption from a Nest Account to a Google Account. We encourage all smart home developers to visit the Actions on Google Smart Home developer site to see the ways you can integrate your devices or services with the Google Assistant. See our recent Works with Nest blogpost for more details.

One set of core commitments that apply across Nest and Google connected home devices and services

As Nest redefines technology in the home, there’s an opportunity to explain clearly and simply how our connected home devices and services work, and how we will respect your privacy. Learn more about Google’s commitment to privacy in the home.

Frequently asked questions

Google Nest

Is Nest going away?

Since Nest joined Google’s hardware team last year, we’ve been working to make the smart home less complicated, and well, more helpful. A home where products are easy to set up, simple to manage and work seamlessly together. Today, we’re committing to that goal by bringing together all Nest and Home products under the Nest brand. Introducing Google Nest.
Nest devices will continue to be available, and will be sold under the Google Nest brand. Later this summer, Nest users will have the ability to migrate to Google Accounts and manage all of their Nest and Google Home devices and services with one account.
Learn more about Google Nest

What will happen to the Nest app?

At this time, the Nest app will continue to be available.
Over the next few months, users with Nest Accounts will be invited to migrate to Google Accounts, benefiting from industry-leading security protections and a single account across the Nest and Google Home apps, as well as all of Google’s other products. And having a single account will let Nest and Google Home devices work together in new ways. For example, Nest Hub (formerly Google Home Hub) can show live video from the Nest Hello video doorbell when someone rings the bell, so you can see who's at the front door – without any additional setup.

Migrating my existing Nest Account and data to Google

Why is Nest asking me to migrate my existing Nest Account to a Google Account?

Right now, our users manage multiple accounts, permissions, and settings across our connected home devices and services. Moving to a unified Google Account will give Nest users the benefit of a single account, seamless experiences, and the ability to align homes and home members across the Nest and Google Home apps. We strongly recommend account migration to Google for all of our users. Having a single account will also enable Nest and Google Home devices and services to work more seamlessly together – for example, if you have a Nest thermostat and a Google Home, just say, “Hey Google, make it warmer” to turn up the heat without any additional setup.
Keep reading for details about how Nest users’ data will be used and to learn about your options, including customizing your Google Account settings. Learn about Nest’s commitment to privacy in the home here.

What happens if I don’t migrate to a Google Account?

As Nest offers new connected home devices and services in the future, many of those will only be available to our users with Google Accounts. That’s why we strongly recommend all our Nest users migrate to Google Accounts and benefit from enhanced security, a set of privacy commitments from Google that apply across Google Nest connected home devices and services, and seamless user experiences. New users of Nest services will automatically start with a Google Account at the same time we make the migration option available to current users this summer.
Migrating from a Nest Account to a Google Account is optional. If you don’t migrate your Nest Account, you’ll remain subject to existing terms and privacy policies of Nest Labs, Inc. listed here. If there are any changes to our existing offerings available to you, we’ll make sure to keep you informed.

Will security updates be available for devices of Nest Account holders that don’t migrate to a Google Account?

Yes, as a general practice, our device security updates are made available to users regardless of account type.

What’s included in my Nest Account data?

Your Nest Account data consists of the personal data associated with your existing non-migrated Nest Account, collected under Nest’s terms and privacy policies here.

Where will my Nest Account data be after I migrate to a Google Account?

If you choose to migrate, your Nest Account data will become associated with whichever Google Account you choose to migrate to, and this data will be handled as explained in the Google Privacy Policy, subject to some limits as explained below. For users in the European Economic Area or Switzerland, the data controller responsible for your information will be Google Ireland Limited. Acting as Google’s service provider, Nest Labs, Inc. will continue to process some of your data that's needed to continue offering some connected home services like energy programs and Nest Aware, subject to Google’s instructions. Nest will also remain the publisher of the Nest app in the iOS and Google Play app stores and will process some of your Google Account data to allow you to use the Nest app, sites, and services with a Google Account.

If I migrate accounts, how will my Nest devices work with Google’s connected home devices and services?

Your Nest devices will become a part of Google Nest’s suite of connected home devices and services, which will include devices and services like Google Home Mini, the Home app, and related connected home services. If you migrate to a Google Account, you can use one account across all of these devices and services.

How can I make my Google Account more secure?

All Google Accounts come with automatic and risk-based sign-in protections. We recommend you take the Security Checkup after migrating to a Google Account. Security Checkup provides personalized guidance to help you secure your account and manage your online security.
Setting up 2-Step Verification (2SV) strengthens the security of your Google Account by adding a second verification step whenever you sign in, such as prompts from a trusted device or the use of a physical security key (the strongest form of 2SV). If you previously had Nest’s 2-Step Verification account security feature enabled, your Nest Account security settings will not transfer to your Google Account. Set up 2SV for your Google Account by visiting and clicking Get Started.
Learn more about making your Google Account more secure.

How will Google use my Nest Account data if I migrate to a Google Account?

Google will use your data as described in the Google Privacy Policy when you use any Nest or Google service, subject to the limitations explained below. Learn about Google’s commitment to privacy in the home here. You can manage your Google Account information, privacy, and security to make Google work better for you at
Here are some key details about how your Nest data will be managed if you migrate:

Audio recordings and video footage from your Nest camera and Nest Hello video doorbell

Google will use this data to provide and improve the camera features and services you agree to receive, and will not use this data for promotions or ad personalization. To review and delete your video history or your individual saved clips, follow the instructions here.

Sensor readings collected from environmental and activity sensors

Some of your Nest devices include sensors that detect information about your home’s environment and what’s happening in it, such as motion, whether or not someone is home, ambient light, temperature, and humidity. Google will not use sensor readings from your home environment for ad personalization. Google will use this data for other purposes as explained in the Google Privacy Policy, such as providing your Google services and experiences related to the connected home, improving and personalizing them and developing new ones, for maintaining safety and security, and for keeping you informed of relevant Google products, services, and updates. This data will not be available for you to review and delete in My Activity, and turning off your Google activity controls will not stop the collection or retention of this data for these more limited purposes, since these purposes relate to your core connected home devices and services experience. This data is deleted when you delete your account, subject to Google’s account deletion practices.

Google Assistant usage with Nest devices

When you use your Nest device with the Google Assistant or other Works with Assistant programs, such as to explicitly control your devices and services using voice commands via the Assistant or the Home app (“Hey Google, set my temperature to 70 degrees”), these Assistant interactions can be used to show you relevant ads. Learn more in this Help Center article, which explains how the Assistant uses your interactions for personalized services and ads. You can review and delete your past Assistant queries at

Other device usage data

When you are not interacting with Google services like the Assistant, your Nest device usage data (for example, when you manually adjust your thermostat’s temperature settings) will not be used for ad personalization. Google will use this data for other purposes as explained in the Google Privacy Policy, such as providing your Google services and experiences related to the connected home, improving and personalizing them and developing new ones, for maintaining safety and security, and for keeping you informed of relevant Google products, services, and updates. This data will not be available for you to review and delete in My Activity, and turning off your Google activity controls will not stop the collection or retention of this data for these more limited purposes, since these purposes relate to your core connected home devices and services experience. This data is deleted when you delete your account, subject to Google’s account deletion practices.

Location data collected by the Nest app

Nest offers a Home/Away Assist feature that uses inputs from activity sensors in your Nest devices combined with your phone’s location (after you give permission) to automatically modify the behavior of your Nest devices when you leave or return home. Learn more about Home/Away Assist here. You can turn off use of your phone’s location to inform Home/Away Assist in the Nest app at any time.
If you migrate to a Google Account, your location established by the Location History setting in your Google Account is not used by Home/Away Assist, nor is your phone’s location data collected by the Nest app used to establish Location History in your Google Account.
In the future, as we integrate Nest and Google location services to provide new features, we’ll be transparent and give you controls to manage your connected home information.

Data collected from and its subdomains, including Nest’s online store

The data collected from you when you use the public websites available at, subdomains, or Nest’s online store (including payment information and transaction history) will be associated with your Google Account and handled for the purposes set out in the Google Privacy Policy. You can manage your Google settings to limit how Google uses this data.

Other data, such as basic device and technical data

Any other Nest data, such as basic device data like device name, type and attributes, and technical device data like device serial number; IP and MAC address; device hardware and software information; Wi-Fi, network connectivity and settings information; and battery, diagnostics, crash, and performance information; is handled for the purposes set out in the Google Privacy Policy, including to troubleshoot and make your connected home services and experiences better and more reliable. You can manage your Google settings to limit how Google uses this data.

We’re always working on new ways to improve how you experience Google services. We’ll keep you updated on new experiences and product integrations Google offers, and if we change how your information is used, we’ll be transparent and give you controls to manage your connected home information.

If I migrate to Google, will my Nest data be used to personalize Google services unrelated to my connected home experience?

When you actively interact with other Google services using your Nest devices, such as when you use your Nest devices with the Google Assistant, your device data can be used to personalize those services and your other Google experiences, subject to your Google settings. However, when you are not interacting with other Google services, your Nest device usage and device sensor data are used as explained above. This data is used for purposes such as offering features related to the connected home and enabling safety and security across Google services. At this time, this data is not used to personalize other Google services unrelated to your connected home experience. We will continue to work to offer new features and experiences and more integrations across other Google services, and as we do that, we’ll be transparent and give you controls to manage your information.

How will Google use data from my Nest Account for ads?

Google won’t sell your personal information to advertisers and will not share your personal information with companies, organizations, or individuals outside of Google except with your consent, with domain administrators, for external processing, or for legal reasons, all as explained in more detail in the Google Privacy Policy. You can learn about Google Nest’s commitment to privacy in the home here to better understand how we limit the use of certain Nest device data for ad personalization. Nest data that is not specifically restricted as explained above may inform the ads you see, but you can always turn off ad personalization at any time by going to your Google Ad Settings. You can also unsubscribe from marketing emails at any time by clicking the unsubscribe link in the marketing emails you receive. Learn more about turning off personalized ads.

Will new users of Nest services be required to use Google Accounts?

Yes. New users of Nest services will automatically start with a Google Account at the same time that we make the migration option available to existing users this summer. They will automatically benefit from Google Account security, a set of privacy commitments from Google Nest that apply across our connected home devices and services, and seamless user experiences.

What Terms of Service apply if I migrate from my Nest Account to a Google Account?

You will be subject to the Google Terms of Service if you migrate to a Google Account, as supplemented by these Nest Terms of Service. If you’re based in the European Economic Area or Switzerland, unless stated otherwise in any additional terms, Google services (including the Nest services if you migrate) are provided by Google Ireland Limited, a company incorporated and operating under the laws of Ireland (Registered Number: 368047), and located at Gordon House, Barrow Street, Dublin 4, Ireland.

Works with Nest program


What’s happening to the Works with Nest program?

Works with Nest was created in 2014, at a time when there was no single place to manage and control Nest devices alongside other smart home devices. The connected home has evolved significantly since then, and how people interact with and manage their devices has changed as well. Voice interaction and device control is at the center of today’s connected home experience, and the Google Assistant has evolved into a leading home developer platform.
Moving forward, our team will focus on delivering a single consumer and developer experience through the Works with Google Assistant program – a one-stop shop to enable rich cross-product integrations to build a more helpful home. Google Assistant works with over 3,500 home automation brands and more than 30,000 devices, providing key benefits such as:

A single place to manage all your connected home devices from Google, Nest, and smart home partners.

Whole-home control through automated routines, voice control, display and touch surfaces, and the Home app.

Learn more on our Works with Nest blog.

How is Works with Google Assistant different from Works with Nest?

Works with Nest allows many third-party partners direct access and control of your Nest devices (with your permission). Works with Google Assistant enables all your connected devices to be controlled by the Google Assistant through voice, the Google Home or Assistant apps, or through Home View on smart displays (again, with your permission).
From the Home or Assistant apps, you can set up multi-device automated actions, such as morning or bedtime routines, through Assistant Routines. Third parties will no longer be able to ask for permission to directly access or control your Nest devices, thus keeping your data more private.

What will happen to my Works with Nest connections if I migrate my Nest Account to Google?

If you are the owner of a Nest home (you can see your account status in your Nest app settings under Settings > Family), you must remove all your Works with Nest connections before you can migrate to a Google Account. Those connections will not be supported when you use a Google Account. When you migrate, we’ll give you an opportunity to review your Works with Nest connections and decide how you wish to proceed.
Important: If you decide to migrate to a Google Account, it will remove your Works with Nest connections and they will no longer work. This action is not reversible.

What happens to my existing Works with Nest connections if I don’t migrate my Nest Account to Google? When will my connections stop working?

Your existing devices and integrations will continue working with your Nest Account, however you won’t have access to new features that will be available with a Google Account. If we make changes to the existing WWN connections available to you with your Nest Account, we will make sure to keep you informed.
We’ll stop accepting new WWN connections on August 31, 2019. Once your WWN functionality is available on the Works with Google Assistant platform you can migrate with minimal disruption from a Nest Account to a Google Account.
For WWN integrations that cannot be migrated, you will have the option to maintain those integrations with your Nest Account, however, you won’t have access to new features that will be available with a Google Account.
Learn more on our Works with Nest blog.

Can I continue to use my Nest device with Google Assistant after migrating?

Yes, when migrating your Nest Account, just choose the same Google Account you are using for the Google Assistant.

What will happen to my connection with Alexa? Will it stop working?

We recognize you may want your Nest devices to work with other connected ecosystems. We’re working with Amazon to migrate the Nest skill that lets you control your Nest thermostat and view your Nest camera livestream via Amazon Alexa. Additionally, we’re working with other partners to offer connected experiences that deliver more custom integrations.


I’m a Works with Nest developer. Will my solution still be able to access and control Nest devices?

Your existing integrations will be supported for those using a Nest Account. For users using a Google Account, your existing integrations will no longer be supported.
We encourage all smart home developers to visit the Actions on Google Smart Home developer site to see the ways you can integrate your devices or services with the Google Assistant.

I’m a Works with Nest developer. Will I be able to access and control Nest devices moving forward?

No. The Actions on Google Smart Home platform does not provide open API access to Nest devices, so it cannot be used to access and control Nest devices. Instead, managing and controlling Google Home, Nest, and thousands of third-party smart home devices is done through the Google Home app and the Google Assistant.

As a Works with Nest developer, how can I access my own device data?

If you are a Works with Nest developer with a Nest Account, you can download an archive of your Nest data by going here. If you migrate to a Google Account, you will be able to download your Nest data by going here.

Where can I find out more information on Works with Google Assistant and the Actions on Google Smart Home developer program?

If you’re a Nest user, check out the Works with Google Assistant site to learn how to use your Google Assistant to set up access and control devices from Google, Nest, and our partners.

If you’re a developer, visit the Actions on Google Smart Home site to learn how to integrate your device or service with the Google Assistant.

My family and connections

Will the homes and family members in my Google Home app match the ones in my Nest app?

If you migrate your existing Nest Account to Google, you’ll be asked to unify your homes and home member lists across the Nest and Home apps. That way, you’ll see one consistent view of your Google home and its members across both apps, with your data being handled as explained in the Google Privacy Policy, with certain controls being consolidated in the Google Home app. Because both apps will show the same home, actions in one app will affect the home as reflected in the other app.
The data will be unified as follows:

Owner of Nest home

If you are the owner of a Nest home (the primary account holder for a Nest structure), when you migrate your Nest Account to your Google Account, you must designate whether or not your Nest home matches one of the homes on your Home app. You must also designate who from your Nest Family Accounts and Google home members can be a member of this unified home with Google.

Here are things that will apply when you unify your home with Google:

Unified home. Your Nest home in your Nest app and your home in your Home app will become one home with Google. If you delete your home from the Home app, it will be deleted, which means it will no longer appear in the Nest app.

Unified members. The same group of members will have access to the unified home reflected across the two apps. This means adding or removing a member from your home in the Home app will result in the same member being added or removed from your home in the Nest app. Here are some key points to note:

All members of your new unified Google home (including you) will have the same rights to this home – which means that the Nest family members you invite to this unified home will have broader rights to this home than they have now to your existing Nest home.

Specifically, your family members can remove you or anyone else from the home at any time using the Home app. Consider who you share your home and devices with and understand the broader rights you are giving them.

Your family members will also continue to have any controls they previously had in the Nest app. For example, they can share any Nest Cam or Nest Hello video stream publicly or privately via the Nest app (learn more).

Unified devices. Nest Thermostat, Nest Protect, Nest Cam, Nest Secure, Nest Hello, Nest x Yale Lock, Nest Connect, and Nest Detect devices associated with your Nest home will become visible in your Google Home app and will be shared with all other members of your Google home. Certain other devices will be added over time. They will also be accessible via the Google Assistant. The Nest app will only show devices that were set up in the Nest app.

If you are the owner of a Nest home and choose to migrate to a Google Account, you can select family members you want to keep in your new unified home with Google at the time of migration.

Nest family members

If you are a family member of a Nest home, you can migrate your Nest Account to a Google Account while still retaining access to the Nest home. However, this Nest home will not be unified with a Google home until the owner of the Nest home migrates to Google and invites you to the new unified home. You can choose to accept or reject this invitation.

You can learn more about how members of your unified home can access, share, control, and use devices.

Going forward, you can use both the Home app and the Nest app with your Google Account to manage the devices in your home.

What key changes apply to my Nest home if I migrate my Nest Account to Google?

If you migrate your Nest Account to a Google Account:

You will need to use the Home app to manage the family members in your home. You will no longer be able to add or remove your family members in the Nest app.

You will need to use the Home app if you wish to rename or delete your unified Google home. You will not be able to do this in the Nest app.

If you are the owner of a Nest home and another member of the home removes you via the Home app, then it will unlink all the Nest devices associated with your Nest home, and you will lose access to the Nest home.

After you migrate your Nest Account to a Google Account, you will still be able to control your existing Nest devices through the Nest app. Certain Nest devices and features will be available in the Home app immediately, with more to be added over time.

Data associated with your unified home with Google will be subject to the Google Privacy Policy.

Services and subscriptions

What happens to my energy services if I migrate my account to Google?

Nest Labs, Inc. will continue to administer, on Google’s behalf and subject to Google’s instructions, some existing Nest services, such as energy programs and Nest Aware. You can continue to manage your energy services through the Nest app. Some of these programs will transition to Google over time.

What happens to my Nest subscriptions if I migrate my account to Google?

You should not see disruption to your Nest subscriptions, such as your Nest Aware service, if you migrate to a Google Account.
If you migrate your Nest Account to a Google Account, before you can purchase any new subscriptions, you must migrate your existing Nest subscriptions to Google Pay. After migrating to a Google Account, you will only be able to purchase new subscriptions from the Google Store and not the Nest Store.

What happens to my Nest subscriptions if I don’t migrate my account to Google?

If you choose not to migrate your account to Google, you can only purchase subscriptions through the Nest Store on Your current subscriptions will continue to renew according to your billing cycle.


Password cracking

Recovering passwords stored or transmitted by computer systems

In cryptanalysis and computer security, password cracking is the process of recovering passwords[1] from data that has been stored in or transmitted by a computer system in scrambled form. A common approach (brute-force attack) is to repeatedly try guesses for the password and to check them against an available cryptographic hash of the password.[2] Another type of approach is password spraying, which is often automated and occurs slowly over time in order to remain undetected, using a list of common passwords.[3]

The purpose of password cracking might be to help a user recover a forgotten password (due to the fact that installing an entirely new password would involve System Administration privileges), to gain unauthorized access to a system, or to act as a preventive measure whereby system administrators check for easily crackable passwords. On a file-by-file basis, password cracking is utilized to gain access to digital evidence to which a judge has allowed access, when a particular file's permissions are restricted.

Time needed for password searches[edit]

The time to crack a password is related to bit strength (seepassword strength), which is a measure of the password's entropy, and the details of how the password is stored. Most methods of password cracking require the computer to produce many candidate passwords, each of which is checked. One example is brute-force cracking, in which a computer tries every possible key or password until it succeeds. With multiple processors, this time can be optimized through searching from the last possible group of symbols and the beginning at the same time, with other processors being placed to search through a designated selection of possible passwords.[4] More common methods of password cracking, such as dictionary attacks, pattern checking, word list substitution, etc. attempt to reduce the number of trials required and will usually be attempted before brute force. Higher password bit strength exponentially increases the number of candidate passwords that must be checked, on average, to recover the password and reduces the likelihood that the password will be found in any cracking dictionary.[5]

The ability to crack passwords using computer programs is also a function of the number of possible passwords per second which can be checked. If a hash of the target password is available to the attacker, this number can be in the billions or trillions per second, since an offline attack is possible. If not, the rate depends on whether the authentication software limits how often a password can be tried, either by time delays, , or forced lockouts after some number of failed attempts. Another situation where quick guessing is possible is when the password is used to form a cryptographic key. In such cases, an attacker can quickly check to see if a guessed password successfully decodes encrypted data.

For some kinds of password hash, ordinary desktop computers can test over a hundred million passwords per second using password cracking tools running on a general purpose CPU and billions of passwords per second using GPU-based password cracking tools[1][6][7] (See: John the Ripper benchmarks).[8] The rate of password guessing depends heavily on the cryptographic function used by the system to generate password hashes. A suitable password hashing function, such as bcrypt, is many orders of magnitude better than a naive function like simple MD5 or SHA. A user-selected eight-character password with numbers, mixed case, and symbols, with commonly selected passwords and other dictionary matches filtered out, reaches an estimated 30-bit strength, according to NIST. 230 is only one billion permutations[9] and would be cracked in seconds if the hashing function is naive. When ordinary desktop computers are combined in a cracking effort, as can be done with botnets, the capabilities of password cracking are considerably extended. In 2002, successfully found a 64-bit RC5 key in four years, in an effort which included over 300,000 different computers at various times, and which generated an average of over 12 billion keys per second.[10]

Graphics processors can speed up password cracking by a factor of 50 to 100 over general purpose computers for specific hashing algorithms. As of 2011, available commercial products claim the ability to test up to 2,800,000,000 passwords a second on a standard desktop computer using a high-end graphics processor.[11] Such a device can crack a 10 letter single-case password in one day. The work can be distributed over many computers for an additional speedup proportional to the number of available computers with comparable GPUs.[citation needed]. However some algorithms are or even are specifically designed to run slow on GPUs. Examples include (triple) DES, bcrypt , scrypt and Argon2.

The emergence of hardware acceleration over the past decade GPU has enabled resources to be used to increase the efficiency and speed of a brute force attack for most hashing algorithms. In 2012, Stricture Consulting Group unveiled a 25-GPU cluster that achieved a brute force attack speed of 350 billion guesses per second, allowing them to check {\textstyle 95^{8}}password combinations in 5.5 hours. Using ocl-Hashcat Plus on a Virtual OpenCL cluster platform,[12] the Linux-based GPU cluster was used to "crack 90 percent of the 6.5 million password hashes belonging to users of LinkedIn."[13]

For some specific hashing algorithms, CPUs and GPUs are not a good match. Purpose made hardware is required to run at high speeds. Custom hardware can be made using FPGA or ASIC technology. Development for both technologies is complex and (very) expensive. In general, FPGAs are favorable in small quantities, ASICs are favorable in (very) large quantities, more energy efficient and faster. In 1998, the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) built a dedicated password cracker using ASICs. Their machine, Deep Crack, broke a DES 56-bit key in 56 hours, testing over 90 billion keys per second.[14] In 2017, leaked documents show that ASICs are used for a military project to code-break the entire internet.[15] Designing and building ASIC-basic password crackers is assumed to be out of reach for non-governments. Since 2019, John the Ripper supports password cracking for a limited number of hashing algorithms using FPGAs.[16] FPGA-based setups are now in use by commercial companies for password cracking.[17]

Easy to remember, hard to guess[edit]

Passwords that are difficult to remember will reduce the security of a system because (a) users might need to write down or electronically store the password using an insecure method, (b) users will need frequent password resets and (c) users are more likely to re-use the same password. Similarly, the more stringent requirements for password strength, e.g. "have a mix of uppercase and lowercase letters and digits" or "change it monthly", the greater the degree to which users will subvert the system.[18]

In "The Memorability and Security of Passwords",[19] Jeff Yan et al. examines the effect of advice given to users about a good choice of password. They found that passwords based on thinking of a phrase and taking the first letter of each word are just as memorable as naively selected passwords, and just as hard to crack as randomly generated passwords. Combining two unrelated words is another good method. Having a personally designed "algorithm" for generating obscure passwords is another good method.

However, asking users to remember a password consisting of a "mix of uppercase and lowercase characters" is similar to asking them to remember a sequence of bits: hard to remember, and only a little bit harder to crack (e.g. only 128 times harder to crack for 7-letter passwords, less if the user simply capitalizes one of the letters). Asking users to use "both letters and digits" will often lead to easy-to-guess substitutions such as 'E' → '3' and 'I' → '1', substitutions which are well known to attackers. Similarly typing the password one keyboard row higher is a common trick known to attackers.

Research detailed in an April 2015 paper by several professors at Carnegie Mellon University shows that people's choices of password structure often follow several known patterns. As a result, passwords may be much more easily cracked than their mathematical probabilities would otherwise indicate. Passwords containing one digit, for example, disproportionately include it at the end of the password.[20]


On July 16, 1998, CERT reported an incident where an attacker had found 186,126 encrypted passwords. By the time they were discovered, they had already cracked 47,642 passwords.[21]

In December 2009, a major password breach of the website occurred that led to the release of 32 million passwords. The attacker then leaked the full list of the 32 million passwords (with no other identifiable information) to the internet. Passwords were stored in cleartext in the database and were extracted through a SQL Injection vulnerability. The Imperva Application Defense Center (ADC) did an analysis on the strength of the passwords.[22]

In June 2011, NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) experienced a security breach that led to the public release of first and last names, usernames, and passwords for more than 11,000 registered users of their e-bookshop. The data were leaked as part of Operation AntiSec, a movement that includes Anonymous, LulzSec, as well as other hacking groups and individuals.[23]

On July 11, 2011, Booz Allen Hamilton, a large American Consulting firm that does a substantial amount of work for the Pentagon, had their servers hacked by Anonymous and leaked the same day. "The leak, dubbed 'Military Meltdown Monday,' includes 90,000 logins of military personnel—including personnel from USCENTCOM, SOCOM, the Marine Corps, various Air Force facilities, Homeland Security, State Department staff, and what looks like private sector contractors."[24] These leaked passwords were found to be hashed with unsaltedSHA-1, and were later analyzed by the ADC team at Imperva, revealing that even some military personnel used passwords as weak as "1234".[25]

On July 18, 2011, Microsoft Hotmail banned the password: "123456".[26]

In July 2015, a group calling itself "The Impact Team" stole the user data of Ashley Madison.[27] Many passwords were hashed using both the relatively strong bcrypt algorithm and the weaker MD5 hash. Attacking the latter algorithm allowed some 11 million plaintext passwords to be recovered by password cracking group CynoSure Prime.[28]


One method of preventing a password from being cracked is to ensure that attackers cannot get access even to the hashed password. For example, on the Unixoperating system, hashed passwords were originally stored in a publicly accessible file . On modern Unix (and similar) systems, on the other hand, they are stored in the shadow password file , which is accessible only to programs running with enhanced privileges (i.e., "system" privileges). This makes it harder for a malicious user to obtain the hashed passwords in the first instance, however many collections of password hashes have been stolen despite such protection. And some common network protocols transmit passwords in cleartext or use weak challenge/response schemes.[29][30]

Another approach is to combine a site-specific secret key with the password hash, which prevents plaintext password recovery even if the hashed values are purloined. However privilege escalation attacks that can steal protected hash files may also expose the site secret. A third approach is to use key derivation functions that reduce the rate at which passwords can be guessed.[31]: 

Another protection measure is the use of salt, a random value unique to each password that is incorporated in the hashing. Salt prevents multiple hashes from being attacked simultaneously and also prevents the creation of precomputed dictionaries such as rainbow tables.

Modern Unix Systems have replaced the traditional DES-based password hashing function crypt() with stronger methods such as crypt-SHA, bcrypt and scrypt.[32] Other systems have also begun to adopt these methods. For instance, the Cisco IOS originally used a reversible Vigenère cipher to encrypt passwords, but now uses md5-crypt with a 24-bit salt when the "enable secret" command is used.[33] These newer methods use large salt values which prevent attackers from efficiently mounting offline attacks against multiple user accounts simultaneously. The algorithms are also much slower to execute which drastically increases the time required to mount a successful offline attack.[34]

Many hashes used for storing passwords, such as MD5 and the SHA family, are designed for fast computation with low memory requirements and efficient implementation in hardware. Multiple instances of these algorithms can be run in parallel on graphics processing units (GPUs), speeding cracking. As a result, fast hashes are ineffective in preventing password cracking, even with salt. Some key stretching algorithms, such as PBKDF2 and crypt-SHA iteratively calculate password hashes and can significantly reduce the rate at which passwords can be tested, if the iteration count is high enough. Other algorithms, such as scrypt are memory-hard, meaning they require relatively large amounts of memory in addition to time-consuming computation and are thus more difficult to crack using GPUs and custom integrated circuits.

In 2013 a long-term Password Hashing Competition was announced to choose a new, standard algorithm for password hashing,[35] with Argon2 chosen as the winner in 2015. Another algorithm, Balloon, is recommended by NIST.[36] Both algorithms are memory-hard.

Solutions like a security token give a formal proof answer by constantly shifting password. Those solutions abruptly reduce the timeframe available for brute forcing (attacker needs to break and use the password within a single shift) and they reduce the value of the stolen passwords because of its short time validity.


Main category: Password cracking software

There are many password cracking software tools, but the most popular[37] are Aircrack, Cain and Abel, John the Ripper, Hashcat, Hydra, DaveGrohl and ElcomSoft. Many litigation support software packages also include password cracking functionality. Most of these packages employ a mixture of cracking strategies, algorithm with brute force and dictionary attacks proving to be the most productive.[38]

The increased availability of computing power and beginner friendly automated password cracking software for a number of protection schemes has allowed the activity to be taken up by script kiddies.[39]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ aboclHashcat-lite – advanced password recovery. Retrieved on January 31, 2013.
  2. ^Montoro, Massimiliano (2009). "Brute-Force Password Cracker". Archived from the original on August 20, 2013. Retrieved August 13, 2013.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  3. ^"What Is Password Spraying? How to Stop Password Spraying Attacks".
  4. ^Bahadursingh, Roman (January 19, 2020). "A Distributed Algorithm for Brute Force Password Cracking on n Processors". doi:10.5281/zenodo.3612276.
  5. ^Lundin, Leigh (August 11, 2013). "PINs and Passwords, Part 2". Passwords. Orlando: SleuthSayers.
  6. ^Alexander, Steven. (June 20, 2012) The Bug Charmer: How long should passwords be?. Retrieved on January 31, 2013.
  7. ^Cryptohaze Blog: 154 Billion NTLM/sec on 10 hashes. (July 15, 2012). Retrieved on January 31, 2013.
  8. ^John the Ripper benchmarks. (March 30, 2010). Retrieved on January 31, 2013.
  9. ^Burr, W. E.; Dodson, D. F.; Polk, W. T. (2006). "Electronic Authentication Guideline"(PDF). NIST. doi:10.6028/NIST.SP.800-63v1.0.2. Retrieved March 27, 2008.
  10. ^"64-bit key project status". Archived from the original on September 10, 2013. Retrieved March 27, 2008.
  11. ^Password Recovery Speed table, from ElcomSoft. NTLM passwords, Nvidia Tesla S1070 GPU, accessed February 1, 2011
  12. ^"VCL Cluster Platform".
  13. ^"25-GPU cluster cracks every standard Windows password in <6 hours". 2012.
  14. ^"EFF DES Cracker machine brings honesty to crypto debate". EFF. Archived from the original on January 1, 2010. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  15. ^BiddleMay 11 2017, Sam BiddleSam; P.m, 2:57. "NYU Accidentally Exposed Military Code-breaking Computer Project to Entire Internet". The Intercept.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  16. ^"announce - [openwall-announce] John the Ripper 1.9.0-jumbo-1".
  17. ^"Bcrypt password cracking extremely slow? Not if you are using hundreds of FPGAs!". Medium. September 8, 2020.
  18. ^Managing Network Security. Fred Cohen & Associates. Retrieved on January 31, 2013.
  19. ^Yan, J.; Blackwell, A.; Anderson, R.; Grant, A. (2004). "Password Memorability and Security: Empirical Results"(PDF). IEEE Security & Privacy Magazine. 2 (5): 25. doi:10.1109/MSP.2004.81. S2CID 206485325.
  20. ^Steinberg, Joseph (April 21, 2015). "New Technology Cracks 'Strong' Passwords – What You Need To Know". Forbes.
  21. ^"CERT IN-98.03". Retrieved September 9, 2009.
  22. ^"Consumer Password Worst Practices"(PDF).
  23. ^"NATO Hack Attack". Retrieved July 24, 2011.
  24. ^"Anonymous Leaks 90,000 Military Email Accounts in Latest Antisec Attack". July 11, 2011.
  25. ^"Military Password Analysis". July 12, 2011.
  26. ^"Microsoft's Hotmail Bans 123456". Imperva. July 18, 2011. Archived from the original on March 27, 2012.
  27. ^"Ashley Madison: Hackers Dump Stolen Dating Site Data". Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  28. ^"Researchers Crack 11 Million Ashley Madison Passwords". Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  29. ^Singer, Abe (November 2001). "No Plaintext Passwords"(PDF). Login. 26 (7): 83–91. Archived from the original(PDF) on September 24, 2006.
  30. ^Cryptanalysis of Microsoft's Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol. (July 7, 2011). Retrieved on January 31, 2013.
  31. ^Grassi, Paul A (June 2017). "SP 800-63B-3 – Digital Identity Guidelines, Authentication and Lifecycle Management". NIST. doi:10.6028/NIST.SP.800-63b.
  32. ^A Future-Adaptable Password Scheme. (March 13, 2002). Retrieved on January 31, 2013.
  33. ^MDCrack FAQ 1.8. None. Retrieved on January 31, 2013.
  34. ^Password Protection for Modern Operating Systems. Retrieved on January 31, 2013.
  35. ^"Password Hashing Competition". Archived from the original on September 2, 2013. Retrieved March 3, 2013.
  36. ^"NIST SP800-63B Section"(PDF).
  37. ^"Top 10 Password Crackers". Sectools. Retrieved November 1, 2009.
  38. ^"Stay Secure: See How Password Crackers Work - Keeper Blog". Keeper Security Blog - Cybersecurity News & Product Updates. September 28, 2016. Retrieved November 7, 2020.
  39. ^Anderson, Nate (March 24, 2013). "How I became a password cracker: Cracking passwords is officially a "script kiddie" activity now". Ars Technica. Retrieved March 24, 2013.

External links[edit]


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