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SQL Spreads v4.50.148.0

SQL Spreads v4.50.148.0
SQL Spreads v4.50.148.0

Easily let your end-users update their data in SQL Server. We believe in simplicity and ease of use. We believe that data should be easy to manage and easy to keep up to date. That is why we are making SQL Spreads the number one choice for updating and managing data in SQL Server.

SQL Spreads Benefits
Manage and update centralized data through Excel
For organizations using Microsoft SQL Server, who need to create solutions where end users can manage and update their SQL Server data through Excel, SQL Spreads is an Excel Add-In that lets you:

easily create solutions to manage and update data in SQL Server through Excel,
improve data quality by utilizing automatic validation and integrity checks, and
enable data owners to reach their centralized data through Excel.

Well-known Excel interface
Business users who are used to working in Excel will be up and running with a SQL Spreads solution in minutes.

No problems with wrong data types
When importing user data to SQL Server, wrong data types may cause problems. SQL Spreads has a built-in data check that validates the data at the same time it is entered by the user.

Simple data integrity checks
Drop-down lists make it easy for users to update data columns with foreign key relation – the user selects a text item in the drop-down list in Excel, and SQL Spreads will insert the corresponding key into the database table.

No coding required
SQL Spreads does not require any coding to create data management solutions. Use existing knowledge in Excel and SQL Server to build and update your Excel-to-SQL Server solution.

Easy to maintain and update
A data management solution in SQL Spreads is built using basic Excel and SQL knowledge. Solutions can be maintained in-house without the need to rely on external consultants for updates and changes.

No more troublesome SSIS-imports of Excel files
Importing Excel data into SQL Server using SSIS can be hard. Invalid data types and unclosed files are a few issues that may cause the Excel-to-SQL Server import to fail.

When using SQL Spreads, data is instantly updated in the SQL Server database.

No more complex VBA scripts to import Excel files to SQL Server
VBA project can be tough to maintain over time. SQL Spreads use VBA-free Excel documents together with standard database technologies to move data from Excel to SQL Server.

SQL Spreads Features
End user data management of Microsoft SQL Server data
SQL Spreads reads and writes data between Microsoft Excel and Microsoft SQL Server, and is designed to create an end user application to update and manage centralized SQL Server data using Excel.

Insert, update and delete data in tables in SQL Server through Excel
SQL Spreads will push updates in Excel back to SQL Server. Existing data can be updated, new rows can be added or existing rows can be deleted.

Automatic validation for data quality
When a new value is entered into a cell in Excel, SQL Spreads instantly validates the value against the data type of the mapped column in SQL Server to prevent unsafe data entries.

Change tracking
SQL Spreads tracks which user created and changed a row in a table in SQL Server, and the time when the change was made.

Conflict detection
SQL Spreads’ built-in conflict detection ensures that collaboration works smoothly and that several users can work against the same SQL Server tables at the same time.

Drop-down lists for data consistency
To keep data consistent, SQL Spreads creates data-driven drop-down lists in Excel. Data-driven drop-down lists make it possible for the end user to select a text in the drop-down lists while the corresponding key value is inserted into the database.

Mixed database and formula columns
When importing data from SQL Server into Excel, SQL Spreads can mix columns containing data from SQL Server with columns containing Excel formulas.

By mixing data and formula columns, comparison columns can show percentage calculations and other direct feedback to the user.

Tree-View data selection filter
SQL Spreads can create database import filters that are presented in a Tree-View in Excel. By selecting filter items in the Tree-View, users can select which database data to load into the spreadsheet.

The Tree-View items are fully customizable and are created using standard SQL queries to fetch filter items from the database.

User authentication
SQL Spreads detects the user’s Windows Login, which can be used to filter data from the database.

Data maintenance for non-database skilled users
SQL Spreads makes it possible for a person with database knowledge to create an Excel document for data maintenance, and then share that Excel document with non-database skilled users so they can work with the data through Excel.

When sharing an SQL Spreads Excel document, you can install SQL Spreads in Data User mode. In Data User mode, all the Design-features in SQL Spreads will be locked down, and the user can only do changes in the data, not in the setup of how data is transferred back and forth between Excel and SQL Server.

Technical Information
Supported Excel editions
SQL Spreads is an Excel Add-In that can be installed on Excel 2019, 2016, 2013 or 2010 either 32-bit or 64-bit.

SQL Spreads can be used with the desktop version of Excel for Office 365 either 32-bit or 64-bit.

Supported databases
SQL Spreads supports Microsoft SQL Server, any version from SQL Server 2005 to SQL Server 2017 and any edition from Express or higher.

SQL Spreads also supports Azure SQL.

SQL Spreads can connect to SQL Server using either Windows Authentication or SQL Server Authentication.

Supported Windows editions
SQL Spreads can be used on Windows 10, Windows 8 or Windows 7, either 32-bit or 64-bit.

Prerequisites for installing SQL Spreads are:

.NET Framework 4.0 Client Profile
VSTO 2010 Runtime
The SQL Spreads installer will check for prerequisites before installation and install them if necessary.

Database Development

Источник: https://developer.team/database-development/27447-sql-spreads-v4501480.html

Trojan horse – Virus or malware?

trojan header image

What is a Trojan horse? 

Beware of Greeks bearing gifts: In Virgil’s epic poem, The Aeneid, a clever Greek war strategist named Odysseus devises a plan to get his men inside the walled city of Troy. Instead of destroying or climbing the city’s walls, Odysseus sees another way in: with deception. Trojan soldiers watch as the Greeks appear to sail away, leaving behind a giant wooden horse as a token of surrender. Drunk on victory, the Trojans bring the horse inside their walls, only to discover Odysseus and his men were hidden inside the whole time.

Like its namesake, Trojan horse attacks (or simply “Trojans”) in computing are defined as a type of malware that use deception and social engineering to trick unsuspecting users into running seemingly benign computer programs that hide malicious ulterior motives. While technically they are not computer viruses but rather a separate form of malware, "Trojan horse virus" has become a common way to refer to them. 

How to characterize a Trojan

People sometimes think of a Trojan as a virus or a worm, but it is really neither. A virus is a file infector which can self-replicate and spread by attaching itself to another program. Worms are a type of malware similar to viruses, but they don’t need to be attached to another program in order to spread. Most viruses are now seen as legacy threats. Worms have also become rare, though they do pop up from time to time. 

"A Trojan can be like a Swiss Army knife of hacking."

Think of Trojans as an umbrella term for malware delivery, because there are various kinds of Trojans. Depending on the criminal programmer’s intent, a Trojan can be like a Swiss Army knife of hacking—acting as a bit of standalone malware, or as a tool for other activities, such as delivering future payloads, communicating with the hacker at a later time, or opening up the system to attacks just as the Greek soldiers did from inside the Trojan fortress.

Put another way, a Trojan is a delivery strategy that hackers use to deliver any number of threats, from ransomware that immediately demands money, to spyware that conceals itself while it steals valuable information like personal and financial data.

Keep in sql spreads crack - Free Activators that adware or PUPs (potentially unwanted programs) can be confused with Trojans because the delivery method is similar. For example, sometimes adware sneaks onto your computer as part of a bundle of software. You think you’re downloading one piece of software, but it’s really two or three. The program authors usually include the adware for marketing affiliate reasons so they can monetize their installer with offers—usually clearly labeled. Such adware bundlers are typically less malicious than Trojans. Also, they do not conceal themselves as Trojans do. But since the adware distribution vector resembles that of a Trojan, it can cause confusion.

Trojan virus symptoms

Trojans can look like just about anything, from free software and music, to browser advertisements to seemingly legitimate apps. Any number of unwise user behaviors can lead to a Trojan infection. Here are a few examples:

  • Downloading cracked applications. Promises of an illegal free copy of a piece of software can be enticing, but the cracked software or activation key generator may conceal a Trojan attack.
  • Downloading unknown free programs. Sql spreads crack - Free Activators looks like a free game or screensaver could really be a Trojan, especially if you find it on an untrustworthy site.
  • Opening infected attachments. You get a strange email with what looks like an important attachment, like an invoice or a delivery receipt, but it launches a Trojan when you click on it.
  • Visiting shady websites. Some sites only need a moment to infect your computer. Others use tricks like pretending to stream a popular movie, but only if you download a certain video codec, which is really a Trojan.
  • Any other social engineering that disguises itself by taking advantage of the latest trends. For example, in December 2017, an extensive installed base of Intel processors was discovered to be vulnerable to attack due to hardware issues. Hackers leveraged the ensuing panic by faking a patch called Smoke Loader, which installed a Trojan.

Trojan horse news

History of Trojan horse virus

Fun and games

A program called ANIMAL, released in 1975, is generally considered the world’s first example of a Trojan attack. It presented itself as a simple game along the lines of twenty questions. However, behind the scenes, the game copied itself onto shared directories where other users could find it. From there, the game could spread across entire computer networks. For the most part, it was a harmless prank.

By December 1989, Trojan attacks weren’t for pranks anymore. Several thousand floppy disks containing the AIDS Trojan, the first known ransomware, were mailed to subscribers of PC Business World magazine and a World Health Organization AIDS conference mailing list. This DOS Trojan would lay dormant for 90 boot cycles, encrypt all filenames on the system, then display a notice asking the user to send $189 to a post office box in Panama in order to receive a decryption program.

In the 1990s, another infamous Trojan appeared disguised in the form of a simple Whack-A-Mole game. The program hid a version of NetBus, a program that allows one to remotely control a Microsoft Windows computer system over a network. With remote access, the attacker could do any number of things to a computer, even open its CD tray.

Love and money

In 2000, a Trojan called ILOVEYOU became the most destructive cyberattack in history at the time, with damages estimated up to $8.7 billion. Recipients received an email with what looked like a text attachment named “ILOVEYOU.” If they were curious enough to open it, the program would launch a script that would overwrite their files and send itself to every email in the user’s contact list. As clever as the worm was from a technical perspective, its use of social engineering was arguably its most ingenious component.

Through the 2000s, Trojan attacks continued to evolve, as did the threats they carried. Instead of targeting people’s curiosity, Trojans leveraged the rise of illegal downloading, disguising malware as music files, movies, or video codecs. In 2002, a Windows-based backdoor Trojan horse called Beast emerged and was capable of infecting almost all versions of Windows. Then, in late 2005, another backdoor Trojan called Zlob was distributed disguised as a required video codec in the form of ActiveX.

The 2000s also saw a rise in the number of Mac users, and cybercriminals followed suit. In 2006, the discovery of the first-ever malware for Mac OS X, a low-threat Trojan Horse known as OSX/Leap-A or OSX/Oompa-A, was announced.

The motivations behind Trojan attacks also began to shift around this time. Many early cyberattacks were motivated by a lust for power, control, or pure destruction. By the 2000s, an increasing number of attacks were motivated by greed. In 2007, a Trojan named Zeus targeted Microsoft Windows in order to steal banking information by means of a keylogger. In 2008, hackers released Torpig, also known as Sinowal and Mebroot, which turned off anti-virus applications, allowing others to access the computer, modify data, and steal confidential information like passwords and other sensitive data.

Bigger and badder

As cybercrime entered the 2010s, the greed continued, but hackers started thinking bigger. The rise of untraceable cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin led to a rise in ransomware attacks. In 2013, the Cryptolocker Trojan horse was discovered. Cryptolocker encrypts the files on a user's hard drive and demands a ransom payment to the developer in order to receive the decryption key. Later that same year, a number of copycat ransomware Trojans were also discovered.

“Many of the Trojans we hear about today were designed to target a specific company, organization, or even government.”

The 2010s have also seen a shift in how victims are targeted. While many Trojans still use a blanket approach, attempting to infect as many users as possible, a more targeted approach seems to be on the rise. Many of the Trojans we hear about today were designed to target a specific company, organization, or even government. In 2010, Stuxnet, a Windows Trojan, was detected. It was the first worm to attack computerized control systems, and there are suggestions that it was designed to target Iranian nuclear facilities. In 2016, Tiny Banker Trojan (Tinba) made headlines. Since its discovery, it has been found to have infected more than two dozen major banking institutions in the United States, including TD Bank, Chase, HSBC, Wells Fargo, PNC, and Bank of America. In 2018, the Emotet Trojan, once origin pro 2018 with crack full version free download - Free Activators banking Trojan in its own right, was seen to be delivering other types of malware, including other Trojans.

As one of the oldest and most common ways to deliver malware, the history of Trojans follows the history of cybercrime itself. What started as a way to prank one’s friends morphed into a way to destroy networks, steal information, make money, and seize power. The days of pranks are long gone. Instead, they continue to be serious cybercriminal tools used mostly for data stealing, espionage, and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks.

What are the different types of a Trojan horse?

Trojans are versatile and very popular, so it’s difficult to characterize every kind. That said, most Trojans are designed to take control of a user’s computer, steal data, spy on users, or insert more malware on to a victim’s computer. Here are some common threats that come from Trojan attacks:

  • Backdoors, which create remote access to your system. This kind of malware changes your security to allow the hacker to control the device, steal your data, and even download more malware.
  • Spyware, which watches as you access online accounts or enter your credit card details. They then transmit your passwords and other identifying data back to the hacker.
  • Zombifying Trojans, which take control of your computer to make it a slave in a network under the hacker’s control. This is the first step in creating a botnet (robot + network), which is often used to perform a distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack designed to take down a network by flooding it with traffic.
  • Downloader Trojans, Emotet being a good example, download and deploy other malicious modules, such as ransomware or keyloggers.
  • Dialer Trojans, which might seem anachronistic since we don’t use dial-up modems any longer. But more on this in the next section.

Trojanized apps on Android smartphones

Trojans aren’t just a problem for laptops and desktops. They attack mobile devices as well, which makes sense given the tempting target presented by the billions of phones in use.

As with computers, the Trojan presents itself as a legitimate program, although it’s actually a fake version of the app full of malware.

Such Trojans usually lurk on unofficial and pirate app markets, enticing users to download them. The Trojans run the full gamut of mischief, infecting the phone with ads and keyloggers, which can steal information. Dialer Trojans can even generate revenue by sql spreads crack - Free Activators out premium SMS texts.    

“Browser extension add-ons can act as Trojans as well&hellip.”

Android users have been the victims of Trojanized apps even from Google Play, which is constantly scanning and purging weaponized apps (many times after the Trojan’s discovery). Browser extension add-ons can act as Trojans as well, since it’s a payload capable of carrying embedded bad code.

While Google can remove browser add-ons from computers, on phones the Trojans can place transparent icons on the screen. It’s invisible to the user, but nonetheless reacts to a finger touch to launch its malware.

As for iPhone users, there’s good news: Apple’s restrictive policies regarding access to its App Store, iOS, and any other apps on the phone do a good job of preventing Trojan incursions. The only exception occurs for those who jailbreak their phones in their quest to download freebies from sites other than the App Store. Installing risky apps outside the Apple settings makes you vulnerable to Trojans.

How do I remove a Trojan virus?

Once a Trojan infects your device, the most universal way to clean it up and restore it to a desired state is to use a good quality, automated anti-malware tool and make a full system scan. If you're worred about a Trojan infection, you can try our free Trojan scanner to check your device. 

There are many free antivirus and anti-malware programs—including our own products for Windows, Android, and Mac—which detect and remove adware and malware. In fact, Malwarebytes detects all known Trojans and more, since 80% of Trojan detection is done by heuristic analysis. We even help mitigate additional infection by cutting off communication between the inserted malware and any backend server, which isolates the Trojan. Our free malware tool will scan and remove existing malware, and our premium product will proactively scan and protect against malware like Trojans, viruses, worms, and ransomware. You can start with a free trial of our premium products to test them out for yourself.    

How do I prevent nordvpn crack reddit - Free Activators Trojan virus?

Since Trojans rely on fooling users into letting them into the computer, most infections are avoidable by remaining vigilant and observing good security habits. Practice a healthy skepticism about websites offering free movies or gambling, opting instead to download free programs directly from the producer’s site rather than from unauthorized mirror servers.

Another precaution to consider: change the default Windows settings so that the real extensions of applications are always visible. This avoids getting tricked by an innocent looking icon.

Other good practices besides installing Malwarebytes for Windows, Malwarebytes for Android, and Malwarebytes for Mac include:

  • Running periodic diagnostic scans
  • Setting up automatic updates of your operating system software, ensuring you have the latest security updates
  • Keeping your applications updated, ensuring any security vulnerabilities are patched
  • Avoiding unsafe or suspicious websites
  • Being skeptical of unverified attachments and links in unfamiliar emails
  • Using complex passwords
  • Staying behind a firewall

How Malwarebytes Premium protects you

At Malwarebytes, we are serious about infection prevention, which is why we aggressively block both websites and advertisements that we consider fraudulent or suspicious. For example, we block torrent sites like The Pirate Bay. Though many savvy users have used such sites without issue, some of the files they offer for download are really Trojans. For similar reasons, we also block cryptomining through browsers, but the user can choose to turn off the block and connect.

Our reasoning is that it’s better to err on the side of safety. If you want to take the risk, it’s easy to whitelist a site, but even tech-savvy types can fall for a convincing Trojan.

To learn more about Trojans, malware, and other cyberthreats, check out the Malwarebytes Labs blog. The things you learn may just help you avoid an infection down the road.

Источник: https://www.malwarebytes.com/trojan

SQL Backup Master Enterprise 5.0.466.0


SQL Backup Master is a professional software for backing up SQL Server databases and storing them in cloud storage services such as Dropbox, OneDrive, Amazon, Microsoft Azure, Box, and Google Drive. In addition to cloud services, you can perform backup operations on the specified FTP server or folder on your local device.

Backing up SQL Database in cloud services should not be complicated or expensive. SQL Backup Master software solves your problem by providing an easy way to back up databases to free cloud storage services. In addition, it offers compression, encryption, scheduling, recovery, and notification services.

SQL Backup Master Features and Features:

  • Powerful planning and scheduling for database backup
  • FTP server backup with support for FTP, SFTP, and FTPS
  • Has the ability to notify via email to display success, failure, and alert
  • Backup to local folders, network folders, or connected storage devices
  • Backup on cloud storage services avg ultimate key 2019 - Activators Patch as Dropbox, Google Drive, Box, Amazon S3, OneDrive, and Azure

The system required SQL Backup Master

Supported Operating Systems
Windows Server 2016, 2012, or 2008
Windows 10, 8, 7, or Vista

Supported Database Platforms
SQL Server 2005, 2008, 2012, 2014, 2016, or 2017

See Also:

GoodSync Enterprise [Free Download]

[Download] Java SE Runtime Environment (JRE) 10.0.2 x64

ScreenHunter Pro 7.0.1227

X1 Search 2020 v8.6.3.4028 x64 Enterprise

ApowerREC [ Free Download ]



SQL Backup

Installation guide

Read the Readme.txt file in the Crack folder.

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Источник: https://tech-story.net/sql-backup-master-enterprise-5-0-466-0/

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Pick operating system

The Pick operating system (often called just "the Pick system" or simply "Pick")[1] is a demand-paged, multiuser, virtual memory, time-sharingcomputeroperating system based around a MultiValue database. Pick is used primarily for business data processing. It is named after one of its developers, Richard A. (Dick) Pick.[2]

The term "Pick system" has also come to be used as the general name of ableton crack 2019 - Crack Key For U operating environments which employ this multivalued database and have some implementation of Pick/BASIC and ENGLISH/Access queries. Although Pick started on a variety of minicomputers, the system and its various hdcleaner review - Crack Key For U eventually spread to a large assortment of microcomputers, personal computers[3] and mainframe computers.[4][5]


The Pick operating system consists of a database, dictionary, query language, procedural language (PROC), peripheral management, multi-user management, and a compiled BASIC Programming language.[6]

The database is a 'hash-file' data management system. A hash-file system is a collection of dynamic associative arrays which are organized altogether and linked and controlled using associative files as a database management system. Being hash-file oriented, Pick provides efficiency in data access time. Originally, all data structures in Pick were hash-files (at the lowest level) meaning records are stored as associated couplets of a primary key to a set of values. Today a Pick system can also natively access host files in Windows or Unix in any format.

A Pick database is divided into one or more accounts, master dictionaries, dictionaries, files, and sub-files, each of which is a hash-table oriented file. These files contain records made up of fields, sub-fields, and sub-sub-fields. In Pick, records are called items, fields are called attributes, and sub-fields are called values or sub-values (hence the present-day label "multivalued database"). All elements are variable-length, with field and values marked off by special delimiters, so that any file, record, or field may contain any number of entries of the lower level of entity. As a result, a Pick item (record) can be one complete entity (one entire invoice, purchase order, sales order, etc.), or is like a file on most conventional systems. Entities that are stored as 'files' in other common-place systems (e.g. source programs and text documents) must be stored as records within files on Pick.[7]

The file hierarchy is roughly equivalent to the common Unix-like hierarchy of directories, sub-directories, and files. The master dictionary is similar to a directory in that it stores pointers to other dictionaries, files and executable programs. The master dictionary also contains the command-line language.

All files (accounts, dictionaries, files, sub-files) are organized identically, as are all records. This uniformity is exploited throughout the system, both by system functions, and by the system administration commands. For example, the 'find' command will find and report the occurrence of a word or phrase in a file, and can operate on any account, dictionary, file or sub-file.

Each record must have a unique primary key which determines where in a file that record is stored. To retrieve a record, its key is hashed and the resultant value specifies which of a set of discrete "buckets" (called "groups") to look in for the record. Within a bucket, records are scanned sequentially. Therefore, most records (e.g. a complete document) can be read using one single disk-read operation. This same method is used to write the record back to its correct "bucket".

In its initial implementation, Pick records were limited to 32 KB in total (when a 10 MB hard disk cost US$5000), although this limit was removed in the 1980s. Files can contain an unlimited number of records, but retrieval efficiency is determined by the number of records relative to the number of buckets allocated to the file. Each file may be initially allocated as many buckets as required, although changing this extent later may (for some file types) require the file to be quiescent. All modern multi-value databases have a special file-type which changes extent dynamically as the file is used. These use a technique called linear hashing, whose cost is proportional to the change in file size, not (as in typical hashed files) the file size itself. All files start as a contiguous group of disk pages, and grow by linking additional "overflow" pages from unused disk space.

Initial Pick implementations had no index structures as they were not deemed necessary. Around 1990, a B-tree indexing feature was added. This feature makes secondary key look-ups operate much like keyed inquiries of any other database system: requiring at least two disk reads (a key read then a data-record read).

Pick data files are usually two levels. The first level is known as the "dictionary" level and is mandatory. It contains:

  • Dictionary items – the optional items that serve as definitions for the names and structure of the items in the data fork, used in reporting
  • The data-level identifier – a pointer to the second or "data" level of the file

Files created with only one level are, by default, dictionary files. Some versions of the Pick system allow multiple data levels to be linked to one dictionary level file, in which case there would be multiple data-level identifiers in the dictionary dvd hd decrypter.

A Pick database has no data typing,[8] since all data is stored as characters, including numbers (which are stored as character decimal digits). Data integrity, rather than being controlled by the system, is controlled by the applications and the discipline of the programmers. Because a logical document in Pick is not fragmented (as it would be in SQL), intra-record integrity is automatic.

In contrast to many SQLdatabase systems, Pick allows for multiple, pre-computed field aliases. For example, a date field may have an alias definition for the format "12 Oct 1999", and another alias formatting that same date field as "10/12/99". File cross-connects or joins are handled as a synonym definition of the foreign key. A customer's data, such as name and address, are "joined" from the customer file into the invoice file via a synonym definition of "customer number" in the "invoice" dictionary.

Pick record structure favors a non-first-normal-form composition, where all of the data for an entity is stored in a single record, obviating the need to perform joins. Managing large, sparse data sets in this way can result in efficient use of storage space. This is why these databases are sometimes called NF2 or NF-squared databases.


Pick was originally implemented as the Generalized Information Retrieval Language System (GIRLS) on an IBM System/360 in 1965 by Don Nelson and Richard (Dick) Pick at TRW, whose government contract for the Cheyenne Helicopter project required developing a database.[5] It was supposed to be used by the U.S. Army to control the inventory of Cheyenne helicopter parts.[9][10]

Pick was subsequently commercially released in 1973 by Microdata Corporation (and its British distributor CMC) as the Reality Operating System now supplied by Northgate Information Solutions.[11]McDonnell Douglas bought Microdata in 1981.[5]

Originally on the Microdata implementation, and subsequently implemented on all Pick systems, a BASIC language called Data/BASIC with numerous syntax extensions for smart terminal interface and database operations was the primary programming language sql spreads crack - Free Activators applications. A PROC procedure language was provided for executing scripts. A SQL-style language called ENGLISH allowed database retrieval and reporting, but not updates (although later, the ENGLISH command "REFORMAT" allowed updates on a batch basis). ENGLISH did not fully allow manipulating the 3-dimensional multivalued structure of data records. Nor did it directly provide common relational capabilities such as joins. This was because powerful data dictionary redefinitions for a field allowed joins via the execution of a calculated lookup in another file. The system included a spooler. A simple text editor for file-system records was provided, but the editor was only suitable[12] for system maintenance, and could not lock records, so most applications were written with the other tools such as Batch, RPL, or the BASIC language so as to ensure data validation and allow record locking.

By the early 1980s observers saw the Pick operating system as a strong competitor to Unix.[13]BYTE in 1984 stated that "Pick is simple and powerful, and it seems to be efficient and reliable, too . because it works well as a multiuser system, it's probably the most cost-effective way to use an XT".[14] Dick Pick founded Pick & Associates, later renamed Pick Systems, then Raining Data,then (as of 2011[update]) TigerLogic, and finally Rocket Software. He licensed "Pick" to a large variety of manufacturers and vendors who have produced different "flavors" of Pick. The database flavors sold by TigerLogic were D3, mvBase, and mvEnterprise. Those previously sold by IBM under the "U2" umbrella are known as UniData and UniVerse. Rocket Software purchased IBM's U2 family of products in 2010 and TigerLogic's D3 and mvBase family of products in 2014. In 2021, Rocket acquired OpenQM and jBASE as well.

Dick Pick died of stroke complications in October 1994.[2][15]

Pick Systems often became tangled in licensing litigation, and devoted relatively little effort to marketing[16][17] and improving its software. Subsequent ports of Pick to other platforms generally offered the same tools and capabilities for many years, usually with relatively minor improvements and simply renamed (for example, Data/BASIC became Pick/BASIC and ENGLISH became ACCESS).[18] Licensees often developed proprietary variations and enhancements (for example, Microdata created their own input processor called ScreenPro).

Derivative and related products[edit]

The Pick database was licensed to roughly three dozen licensees between 1978 and 1984. Application-compatible implementations evolved into derivatives and also inspired similar systems.

  • Reality – The first implementation of the Pick database was on a Microdata platform using firmware and called Reality. The first commercial release was in 1973. Microdata acquired CMC Ltd. in the early 80s and were based in Hemel Hempstead, England. The Microdata implementations ran in firmware, so each upgrade had to be accompanied by a new configuration chip. Microdata itself was eventually bought by McDonnell Douglas Information Systems. Pick and Microdata sued each other for the right to market the database, the final judgment being that they both had the right. In addition to the Reality Sequoia and Pegasus series of computers, Microdata and CMC Ltd. sold the Sequel (Sequoia) series which was a much larger class able to handle over 1000 simultaneous users. The earlier Reality minicomputers were known to handle well over 200 simultaneous gta 5 social club offline crack, although performance was slow and it was above the official limit. Pegasus systems superseded Sequoia and could handle even more simultaneous users than its predecessors. The modern version of this original Pick implementation is owned and distributed by Northgate Information Solutions Reality.
  • Ultimate – The second implementation of the Pick database was developed in about 1978 by a New Jersey company called The Ultimate Truecaller gold apk cracked - Free Activators, run by Ted Sabarese. Like the earlier Microdata port, this was a firmware implementation, with the Pick instruction set in firmware and the monitor in assembly code on a Honeywell Level 6 machine. The system had dual personalities in that the monitor/kernel functions (mostly hardware I/O and scheduling) were executed by the native Honeywell Level 6 instruction set. When the monitor "select next user" for activation control was passed to the Honeywell WCS (writable control store) to execute Pick assembler code (implemented in microcode) for the selected process. When the user's time slice expired control was passed back to sql spreads crack - Free Activators kernel running the native Level 6 instruction set.
    • Ultimate took this concept further with the DEC LSI/11 family of products by implementing a co-processor in hardware (bit-slice, firmware driven). Instead of a single processor with a WCS microcode enhanced instruction set, this configuration used two independent but cooperating CPUs. The LSI11 CPU executed the monitor functions and the co-processor executed the Pick assembler instruction set. The efficiencies of this approach resulted in a 2× performance improvement. The co-processor concept was used again to create a 5×, 7×, and dual-7× versions for Honeywell Level 6 systems. Dual ported memory with private busses to the co-processors were used to increase performance of the LSI11 and Level 6 systems.
    • Another sql spreads crack - Free Activators used a DEC LSI-11 for the IOP and a 7X board. Ultimate enjoyed moderate success during the 1980s, and even included an implementation running as a layer on top of DEC VAX systems, the 750, 780, 785, and later the MicroVAX. Ultimate also had versions of the Ultimate Operating System running on IBM 370 series systems (under VM sql spreads crack - Free Activators native) and also the 9370 series computers. Ultimate was renamed Allerion, Inc., before liquidation of its assets. Most assets were acquired by Groupe Bull, and consisted of mostly maintaining extant hardware. Bull had its own problems and in approximately 1994 the US maintenance operation was sold to Wang.
  • Prime INFORMATION – Devcom, a Microdata reseller, wrote a Pick-style database system called INFORMATION in FORTRAN and assembler in 1979 to run on Prime Computer 50-series systems. It was then sold to Prime Computer and renamed Prime INFORMATION.[19] It was subsequently sold to VMark Software Inc. This was the first of the guest operating environment implementations. INFO/BASIC, a variant of Dartmouth BASIC,[6] was used for database applications.
  • UniVerse – Another implementation of the system, called UniVerse, was created by VMark Software and operated under Unix and Microsoft Windows. This was the first one to incorporate the ability to emulate other implementations of the system, such as Microdata's Reality Operating System, and Prime INFORMATION. Originally running on Unix, it was later also made available for Windows. It now is owned by Rocket Software. (The systems developed by Prime Computer and VMark are now owned by Rocket Software and referred to as "U2".)
  • UniData – Very similar to UniVerse, but UniData had facilities to interact with other Windows applications. It is also owned and distributed by Rocket Software.
  • PI/open – Prime Computer rewrote Prime INFORMATION in C for the Unix-based systems it was selling, calling it PI+. It was then ported to other Unix systems offered by other hardware vendors and renamed PI/open.
  • Applied Digital Data Systems (ADDS) – This was the first implementation to be done in software only, so upgrades were accomplished by a tape load, rather than a new chip. The "Mentor" line was initially based on the Zilog Z-8000 chipset and this port set off a flurry of other software implementations across a wide array of processors with a large emphasis on the Motorola 68000.
  • Fujitsu Microsystems of America – Another software implementation, existing in the late 1980s. Fujitsu Microsystems of America was acquired by Alpha Microsystems on October 28, 1989.[20][21]
  • Pyramid – Another software implementation existing in the 1980s
  • General Automation "Zebra" – Another software implementation existing in the 1980s
  • Altos – A software implementation on an 8086 chipset platform launched around 1983.
  • WICAT/Pick – Another software implementation existing in the 1980s
  • Sequoia – Another software implementation, existing from 1984. Sequoia was most well known for its fault-tolerant multi-processor model,[22][23] which could be dialed into with the user's permission and his switching terminal zero to remote with the key on the system consol. He could watch what was done by the support person who had dialed on his terminal 0, a printer with a keyboard. Pegasus came out in 1987. The Enterprise Systems business unit (which was the unit that sold Pick), was sold to General Automation in 1996/1997.[24]
  • Revelation – In 1984, Cosmos released a Pick-style database called Revelation, later Advanced Revelation, for DOS on the IBM PC. Advanced Revelation is now owned by Revelation Technologies, which publishes a GUI-enabled version called OpenInsight.
  • jBASE – jBASE was released in 1991 by a small company of the same name in Hemel Hempstead, England. Written by former Microdata engineers, jBASE emulates all implementations of the system to some degree. jBASE compiles applications to native machine code form, rather than to an intermediate byte code. In 2015, cloud solutions provider Zumasys[25] in Irvine, California, acquired the jBASE distribution rights from Mpower1 as well as the intellectual property from Temenos Group.[26] On 14 Oct 2021, Zumasys announced they had sold their databases and tools, including jBASE to Rocket Software.[27]
  • UniVision – UniVision was a Pick-style database designed as a replacement for the Mentor version, but with extended features, released in 1992 by EDP[28] in Sheffield, England.
  • OpenQM – The only MultiValue database product available both as a fully supported non-open source commercial product and in open source form under the General Public License. OpenQM is available from its exclusive worldwide distributor, Zumasys.[29]
  • Caché – In 2005 InterSystems, the maker of Caché database, announced support for a broad set of MultiValue extensions, Caché for MultiValue.[30]
  • ONware – ONware equips MultiValue applications with the ability to use common databases such as Oracle and SQL Server. Using ONware, MultiValue applications can be integrated with relational, object, and object-relational applications.
  • D3 – Pick Systems ported the Pick operating system to run as a database product utilizing host operating systems such as Unix, Linux, or Windows servers, with the data stored within the file system of the host operating system. Previous Unix or Windows versions had to run in a separate partition, which made interfacing with other applications difficult. The D3 releases opened the possibility of integrating internet access to the database or interfacing to popular word processing and spreadsheet applications, which has been successfully demonstrated by a number of users. The D3 family of databases and related tools is owned and distributed by Rocket Software.

Through the implementations above, and others, Pick-like systems became available as database/programming/emulation environments running under many variants of Unix and Microsoft Windows.

Over the years, many important and widely used applications have been written using Pick or one of the derivative implementations[citation needed]. In general, the end users of these applications are unaware of the underlying Pick implementation.

Criticisms and comparisons[edit]

Run-time environment[edit]

Native Pick did not require an underlying operating system (OS) to run. This changed with later implementations when Pick was re-written to run on various host OS (Windows, Linux, Unix, etc.). While the host OS provided access to hardware resources (processor, memory, storage, etc.), Pick had internal processes for memory management. Object-oriented Caché addressed some of these problems.[31]

Networking in mvBase was not possible without an accompanying application running in the host OS that could manage network connections via TCP ports and relay them to Pick internal networking (via serial connection).[31]

Credentials and security[edit]

Individual user accounts must be created within the Pick OS, and cannot be sql spreads crack - Free Activators to an external source (such as local accounts on the host OS, or LDAP).

User passwords are stored within the Pick OS as an encrypted value. The encrypted password can be "cracked" via brute force methods, but requires system access and Pick programming skills as part of the attack vector.

The Rocket D3 implementation supports SSL file encryption.[32]

Expertise and support[edit]

Companies looking to hire developers and support personnel for MultiValue-based (Pick-based) systems recognize that although developers typically do not learn the environment in college and university courses, developers can be productive quickly with some mentoring and training. Due to the efficient design and nature of the programming language (a variant of BASIC), the learning curve is generally considered low. Pick products such as D3, UniVerse, UniData, jBASE, Revelation, MVON, Caché, OpenQM, and Reality are still supported globally NoteBurner Spotify Music Converter 2.1.3 With Crack well established distribution channels and resellers. The mvdbms Google Group is a useful place to start when looking for resources. (See mvdbms on Google Groups)

See also[edit]

  • MUMPS, the predecessor of Caché


  1. ^Ramming, D; Bourdon, Roger J. (1989). "The pick operating system – a Practical Guide". Proceedings of the IEEE. 77 (2): 363. doi:10.1109/JPROC.1989.1203777. S2CID 9328922.
  2. ^ ab"Richard A "Dick" Pick (d. 19 Oct 1994)". www.countyhistorian.com.
  3. ^"PICK Operating System – brings Mainframe Power to your PC". InfoWorld. July 27, 1987. p. 80.
  4. ^it was actually developed on an IBM mainframe
  5. ^ abc"General Overview of Classic Pick – a short history". 1995.
  6. ^ ab"Jonathan E. Sisk's Pick/BASIC: A Programmer's Guide". secure28.securewebsession.com.
  7. ^"Jonathan E. Sisk's Pick/BASIC: A Programmer's Guide". secure28.securewebsession.com.
  8. ^"Jonathan E. Sisk's Pick/BASIC: A Programmer's Guide". secure28.securewebsession.com.
  10. ^By law, this original work is public domain, unlike what was subsequently developed beyond the TRW contract.
  11. ^Dick Elleray (16 July 1986). "Project Management Bulletin 1986/09 – "The Reality Operating System Revealed". 1986/09. Project Management Group, McDonnell Douglas Informations Systems Group.
  12. ^"Jonathan E. Sisk's Pick/BASIC: A Programmer's Guide". secure28.securewebsession.com.
  13. ^Fiedler, Ryan (October 1983). "The Unix Tutorial / Part 3: Unix in the Microcomputer Marketplace". BYTE. p. 132. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
  14. ^Rochkind, Marc J. (Fall 1985). "Pick, Coherent, and THEOS". BYTE. p. 231. Retrieved 19 March 2016.
  15. ^Chris Woodyard (October 19, 1994). "Software Developer Dick Pick Died at 56". The Los Angeles Times.
  16. ^CARLA LAZZARESCHI (November 3, 1985). "Computer Wiz Tries Harder to Get Users to Pick His System". The Los Angeles Times.
  17. ^"Pick's lack of marketing"
  18. ^"Jonathan E. Sisk's Pick/BASIC: A Programmer's Guide". secure28.securewebsession.com.
  19. ^"In Depth – Pick Operating System". Computerworld. March 24, 1986. p. 93.
  20. ^Alpha Micro Says It Will Purchase Fujitsu Company. L.A. Times October 28, 1989. Retrieved August 4, 2013.
  21. ^Alpha Micro Previews Apix Concurrent Pick+Unix V.4. Computer Business Review, March 11, 1990. Retrieved August 4, 2013.
  22. ^Mark, Peter B. (1985). "The Sequoia computer". ACM SIGARCH Computer Architecture News. Portal.acm.org. 13 (3): 232. doi:10.1145/327070.327218.
  23. ^Simons, Barbara; Spector, Alfred Z. (1990-01-01). Fault-tolerant distributed computing – Google Boeken. ISBN . Retrieved 2012-01-21.
  24. ^"Sequoia Systems Reports Results for Second Quarter 1997 – Business Wire". Highbeam.com. Retrieved 2012-01-21.[dead link]
  25. ^news (2015-01-05). "Zumasys Acquires jBASE Database From Temenos Software InterSystems". InterSystems Corporation. Retrieved 2021-04-05.
  26. ^ abPick Systems Genymotion crack for linux - Free Activators Manual (D3 Version 7.1.0 ed.). Newport Beach, CA: Pick Systems, Inc. 1997-07-22.
  27. ^"Rocket Software Launches New Version of Rocket D3 Database Management System". Rocket Software. Retrieved April 29, 2020.


  • The REALITY Pocket Guide ; Jonathan E. Sisk ; Irvine, CA ; JES & Associates, Inc. ; 1981 OCLC 216178915
  • The PICK Pocket Guide; Jonathan E. Sisk ; Irvine, CA ; Pick Systems ; 1982
  • Exploring The Pick Operating System ; Jonathan E. Sisk ; Steve VanArsdale ; Hasbrouck Heights, N.J. ; Hayden Book Co. 1985. OCLC 12967951
  • Taylor, Martin (1985). Pick For Users. Blackwell Scientific Publications. ISBN .
  • The Pick Pocket Guide ; Jonathan E. Sisk ; Desk reference ed ; Hasbrouck Heights, N.J. ; Hayden Book Co. 1985. OCLC 18872552
  • The Pick Perspective ; Ian Jeffrey Sandler ; Blue Ridge Summit, PA ; TAB Professional and Reference Books; 1989. OCLC 18521562
  • Pick for professionals : advanced methods and techniques ; Harvey Rodstein ; Blue Ridge Summit, PA ; TAB Professional and Reference Books; 1990. OCLC 20452708
  • Encyclopedia PICK (EPICK) ; Jonathan E. Sisk ; Irvine, CA ; Pick Systems ; 1992 OCLC 28725247
  • Le Système d'exploitation PICK ; Malcolm Bull ; Paris: Masson, 1989. OCLC 21247561
  • The Pick operating system ; Joseph St John Bate; Mike Wyatt; New York : Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1986. OCLC 14904780
  • The Pick operating system ; Malcolm Bull ; London ; New York : Chapman and Hall, 1987. OCLC 13666782
  • Systeme pick ; Patrick Roussel, Pierre Redoin, Michel Martin ; Paris: CEdi Test, 1988. OCLC 19546897
  • Advanced PICK et UNIX : la nouvelle norme informatique ; Bruno Beninca; Aulnay-sous-Bois, Seine-Saint-Denis ; Relais Informatique International, 1990. OCLC 23242884
  • Le systeme PICK : mode d'emploi d'un nouveau standard informatique ; Michel Lallement, Jeanne-Françoise Beltzer; Aulnay-sous-Bois, Seine-Saint-Denis ; Relais Informatique International, 1987. OCLC 20877971
  • The Pick operating system : a practical guide ; Roger J Bourdon; Wokingham, England ; Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1987. OCLC 13945808
  • Le Système d'éxploitation : réalités et perspectives ; Bernard de Coux; Paris : Afnor, 1988. OCLC 20078135
  • Pick BASIC : a programmer's guide ; Jonathan E Sisk;Blue Ridge Summit, PA : TAB Professional and Reference Books, 1987. OCLC 16355134
  • Pick BASIC : a reference guide ; Linda Mui; Sebastopol, CA : O'Reilly & Associates, 1990. OCLC 22147353
  • Programming with IBM PC Basic and the Pick database system ; Blue Ridge Summit, PA : TAB Books, 1990. OCLC 19723037
  • An overview of PICK system ;Shailesh Kamat; 1993. OCLC 29287280
  • Taylor, Martin; Rees, Stuart (1995). Unix and Unidata. Datamatters. ISBN .
  • Pick: A Multilingual Operating System ; Charles M. Somerville; Computer Language Magazine, May 1987, p. 34.
  • Encyclopedia Pick; Jonathan E. Sisk; Pick Systems, June 1991

External links[edit]

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pick_operating_system

How Malware Spreads - How your system gets infected

Hackers, malware developers use a variety of methods, sophisticated techniques and attack vectors to spread their malicious programs. They rely heavily on social engineering and scams in an attempt to trick unsuspecting users and infect computers. Cyber-criminals succeed because they take advantage of human weaknesses.relying heavily on social engineering to exploit the the weakest link in the security chain.

Malware developers and attackers have been known to use spam emails, exploits, exploit kits, web exploits, malspam, malvertising campaigns, cryptojacking malware campaigns, fileless malware, non-malware attack, drive-by downloads, social engineering, downloading software cracks, activators for Windows & Office, targeting managed service providers (MSPs), exploiting remote monitoring and management (RMM) software and RDP bruteforce attacks.

In some cases, criminals may use legitimate software such as Process Hacker to help facilitate the spread of malware. Process Hacker is a program used for viewing, managing, and manipulating processes and their threads/modules. However, it is one of several tools which can be used (misused) by hackers and malware developers during the compromise of a computer system/network in order to spread various types of malware and ransomware.

Hackers and malware writers come from different age groups, backgrounds, countries, education and skill levels.with varying motivations and intents. Most malware writers and cyber-criminals today treat it as a business venture for financial gain while "script kiddies" typically do it for the thrill and boosting a reputation as being a hacker among their peers. Below are a few articles which attempt to explain who these individuals are and why they do what they do.

Keep in mind that the severity of infection will vary from system to system, some causing more damage than others especially when dealing with rootkits. The longer malware remains on a computer, the more opportunity it has to download additional malicious files and/or install malicious extensions for Internet browsers which can worsen the infection so each case should be treated on an individual basis. Severity of system infection will also determine how the disinfection process goes.
:step1:Rogue security programs are one of the most common sources of malware infection. They infect machines by using social engineering and scams to trick a user into spending money to buy a an application which claims to remove malware. They typically use bogus warning messages and alerts to indicate that your computer is infected with spyware or has critical errors as a scare tactic to goad you into downloading a malicious security application to fix it. The alerts can mimic system messages so they appear as if they are generated by the Windows Operating System. It is not uncommon for malware writers to use the names of well known security tools and legitimate anti-virus programs as part of the name for bogus and fake software in order to trick people into using them. There were at least two rogues that used part of or all of the Malwarebytes name including this Fake and Bundled Malwarebytes Anti-Malware 2.0. There also were rogues for SmitfraudFixTool, VundoFixTool, Spybot Search and Destroy, Avira AntiVir and many more. Even Microsoft has been targeted by attackers using such names as MS Anti-virus and Windows Defender in naming schemes for rogue applications.

Rogue antispyware programs are responsible for launching unwanted pop ups, browser redirects and downloading other malicious files so the extent CyberGhost VPN Crack + Keygen Free Download 2021 the infection can vary icarefone whatsapp transfer full version download include backdoor Trojans, Botnets, IRCBots and rootkits which compromise the computer and make the infection more difficult to remove. For more specific information on how these types of rogue programs and infections install themselves, read:


:step2:  Ransomware is a sophisticated form of extortion in which the attacker either locks the computer to prevent access and demands money (ransom) to unlock it or encrypts a personal information (data files) and then demands money in exchange for a decryption key that can be used to retrieve the encrypted files. In most cases the greatest challenge to recovering the encrypted data has been the process of breaking the code of how the data is scrambled so it can be deciphered. Some forms of Ransomware act like rogue security software, generating bogus infection alerts and warnings to scare their victims. Older versions of ransomware typically claim the victim has done something illegal with their computer and that they are being fined by a police or government agency for the violation.

The most common kinds of ransomware include:

  • File encrypting ransomware which incorporates advanced encryption algorithms that is designed to encrypt data files and demand a ransom payment from the victim in order to decrypt their data. The first file encrypting ransomware variants used a symmetric-key algorithm but malware developers eventually upgraded to public-keys before moving on to use a combination of symmetric and public.
  • Locker ransomware which locks the victim out of the operating system so they cannot access their computer or it's contents to include all files, personal data, photos, etc. Although the files are not actually encrypted, the cyber-criminals still demand a ransom to unlock the computer.
  • Master Boot Record ransomware is a variation of Locker ransomware which denies access to the full system by attacking low-level structures on the disk essentially stopping the computer's boot process and displaying a ransom demand. Some variants will actually encrypt portions of the hard drive itself.

As noted above, crypto malware (file encryptor ransomware) uses some form of encryption algorithms that prevents users from recovering files unless they pay a ransom or have backups of their data. Once the encryption of the data is complete, decryption is usually not feasible without contacting and paying the developer for a solution. Crypto malware typically encrypts any data file that the victim has access to since it generally runs in the context of the user that invokes the executable and does not need administrative rights. It typically will scan and encrypt whatever data files it finds on computers connected in the same network with a drive letter including removable drives, network shares, and even DropBox mappings.if there is a drive letter on your computer it will be scanned for data files and encrypt them. US-CERT Alert (TA13-309A) advises that many ransomware infections have the ability to find and encrypt files located within network drives, shared (mapped network paths), USB drives, external hard drives, and even some cloud storage drives if they have a drive letter. Some crypto malware will scan all of the drive letters that match certain file extensions and when it finds a match, it encrypts them. Other crypto malware will use a white list of excluded folders and extensions that it will not encrypt. By using a white list, such ransomware will encrypt almost all non-system and non-executable related files that it finds.

The first known ransomware attack was the AIDS Trojan spread via floppy disks in 1989. Although Crypto malware has been around for many years, the original CryptoLocker which appeared in the beginning of September 2013 gave it widespread media attention because it demonstrated how these infections could generate a large amount of revenue for their creators. Crypto malware ransomware typically propagates itself as a Trojan, although  Zcrypt was a self-replicating virus Hybrid distributed via malicious email attachments, then spread through removable USB drives and WannaCry was a worm distributed via an email malspam campaign that spread by exploiting vulnerabilities in the Windows operating system. Numerous variants of encrypting ransomware have been reported between 2013 and 2016.

Crypto malware (file encrypting ransomware) spreads via a variety of attack vectors to include social engineering (trickery) and user interaction.opening a malicious email attachment (usually from spam or an unknown or unsolicited source), clicking on a malicious link within an email or on a social networking site and scams. Crypto malware can be disguised as fake PDF files in email attachments which appear to be legitimate correspondence from reputable companies such as banks and other financial institutions, or phony FedEx and UPS notices with tracking numbers. Attackers will use email addresses and subjects (purchase orders, bills, complaints, other business communications) that will entice a user to read the email and open the attachment. Another method involves tricking unwitting users into opening Order Confirmation emails by asking them to confirm an online e-commerce order, purchase or package shipment. Social engineering has become on of the most prolific tactics for distribution of all types of malware, identity theft and fraud.


Attackers will use Shortened malicious URLs to mask a malicious link, obfuscating a malicious destination and malicious code (script) injection (i.e. JScript, JavaScript (.js) file). Another technique uses spam emails and social engineering to infect a system by enticing users to open an infected word document with embedded macro viruses and convince them to manually enable macros that allow the malicious code to run. Some victims have encountered crypto malware from ransomware malware executables, packaged NW.js application using JavaScript, spam containingattachments with zipped .js files or following a previous infection from one of several botnets such as Zbot (frequently used in the cyber-criminal underground) which downloads and executes the ransomware as a secondary payload from infected websites. Nemucod is a well-known JavaScript malware family that arrives via spam email and downloads additional malware to include ransomware variants.

Update:Threat Bulletin: Ransomware 2020 - State of Play

During the latter half of 2019 and early 2020, sql spreads crack - Free Activators BlackBerry Research and Intelligence Team observed cyber-criminal gangs utilizing advanced tactics to infiltrate and ultimately extort money from victims using several prominent ransomware families (E.G.: Ryuk, Sodinokbi1 and Zeppelin2), with a distinct shift from widespread, indiscriminate distribution to highly targeted campaignsoften deployed via compromised Managed Security Service Providers (MSSPs).

Crypto malware can also be delivered via malspam, malvertising campaigns, cryptojacking malware campaigns, downloading software cracks, pirated software, fake Microsoft Teams updates, fake/illegal activators for Windows & Office, targeting managed service providers (MSPs), exploiting Remote Monitoring and Management (RMM) Software, fileless malware, non-malware attack, posing as a folder on removable drives, exploits, exploit kits and drive-by downloads when visiting compromised web sites.see US-CERT Alert (TA14-295A). An Exploit Kit is a malicious tool with pre-written code used by cyber criminals to exploit vulnerabilities (security holes) in outdated or insecure software applications and then execute malicious code. Currently the Angler, RIG, Magnitude, Neutrino, and Nuclear exploit kits are the most popular.

Another scenario involves hackers utilizing Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP), a very common brute force attack vectorfor servers particularly by those involved with the development and spread of ransomware since if enabled, it allows connections from the outside as explained here. Attackers will use remote port scanning tools to scan enterprise computer systems, searching for RDP-enabled endpoints commonly used to login from outside the workplace. When the attacker finds a vulnerable RDP-enabled endpoint they use a barrage of login attempts by guessing or brute force attacking the password. Attackers can also use phishing of a company employee to gain access and control of their machine, then use that access to brute-force RDP access from inside the network.


Once the attacker gains administrative access remotely to a target computer they can create new user accounts or use a user not logged in to do just about anything. The attacker can use remote access tools to softmaker office crack linux and execute crypto malware, generate the encryption keys, encrypt data files and upload files back to the them via the terminal services client. The attacker can steal unencrypted files from backup devices and servers before deploying the ransomware attack as explained here by Lawrence Abrams, site owner of Bleeping Computer.

Kaspersky lap reports brute force attacks against RDP servers are on the rise.

In addition to searching for devices with exposed RDP or weak passwords that can be exploited by brute-force attacks, criminals are also using that access to routinely locate and destroy backups so they can demand higher ransom payments.


IT admins and other folks should close RDP if they don't use it. If they must use RDP, the best way to secure it is to only allow RDP from local traffic, whitelist IP's on a firewall or not expose it to the Internet. Put RDP behind a firewall, setup a VPN to the firewal, use an RDP gateway, change the default RDP port (TCP 3389) and enforce strong password policies, especially on any admin accounts or those with RDP privileges. You may even want to consider using a host-based intrusion prevention system (HIPS) like RdpGuard for Windows Server to protect from brute-force attacks.


Another common method to spread ransomware is by using pirated software, fake/illegal activators for Windows & Office and other cracked software. These programs are not only considered illegal activity in many countries but they are a serious security risk (unsafe practice) which can make your system susceptible to a smörgåsbord of malware infections including encryption of all your most valuable data, in many cases beyond recovery.

RaaS (Ransomware as a Service) is a ransomware hosted on the TOR network that allows "affiliates" to generate a ransomware and distribute it any way they want. The RaaS developer will collect and validate payments, issue decrypters, and send ransom payments to the affiliate, keeping 20% of the collected ransoms.


Note: If victims are dealing with an NAS (Network Attached Storage) Linux-based device, the malware most likely infected a Windows-based machine and encrypted the NAS over the network. The criminals could also connect via Samba/SMB (Server Message Block) and run the malware from their system to encrypt files over the Internet which essentially is the same as encrypting files over a network-mapped drive.


There also have been reported cases where crypto malware has spread via YouTube ads and on social media, a popular venue where cyber-criminals can facilitate the spread of all sorts of malicious infections.

Most security experts will advise against paying the ransom demands of the malware writers. I explain why (Post #14) in this topic. There are also suggestion for the best defensive strategy to protect yourself from malware and ransomware (crypto malware) infection.
:step3: Infections spread by malware writers and attackers exploiting unpatched security holes or vulnerabilities in older versions of popular software such as Adobe, Java, Windows Media Player and the Windows operating system itself. Software applications are a favored target of malware writers who continue to exploit coding and design vulnerabilities with increasing aggressiveness.

Another PDF sample that exploits an unpatched vulnerability in Adobe Reader and Acrobat has been spotted in the wild.

Unpatched Adobe Vulnerability Is Still Being Exploited in the Wild

.your machine may still be vulnerable to attacks if you never bother to uninstall or remove older versions of the software.a malicious site could simply render Java content under older, vulnerable versions of Sun's software if the user has not removed them.

Hole in Patch Process
Ghosts of Java Haunt Users
BlackHole toolkit enables attackers to exploit security holes in order to install malicious software

If a website has been hacked or displays malicious ads, they can exploit the vulnerable software on your computer.

The majority of computers get infected from visiting a specially crafted webpage that exploits one or multiple software vulnerabilities. It could be by clicking a link within an email or simply browsing the net, and it happens silently without any user interaction whatsoever.

Web Exploits

Exploit kits are a type of malicious toolkit used to exploit security holes found in software applications.for the purpose of spreading malware. These kits come with pre-written exploit code and target users running insecure or outdated software applications on their computers.

Tools of the Trade: Exploit Kits

To help prevent this, install and use Secunia Personal Software Inspector (PSI), a FREE security tool designed to detect vulnerable and out-dated programs/plug-ins which expose your computer to malware infection.

:step4: A large number of infections are contracted and spread by visiting gaming sites, porn sites, using pirated software (warez), cracking tools, hacking tools and keygens where visitors may encounter drive-by downloads through exploitation of a web browser or an operating system vulnerability. Security researchers looking at World of Warcraft and other online games have found vulnerabilities that exploit the system using online bots and rootkit-like techniques to evade detection in order to collect gamer's authentication information so they can steal their accounts. Djvu (STOP) Ransomware has been found to spread by downloading software cracks and adware bundles.

Dangers of Gaming Sites:

The design of online game architecture creates an open door for hackers.hackers and malware hoodlums go where the pickings are easy -- where the crowds gather. Thus, Internet security experts warn game players that they face a greater risk of attack playing games online because few protections exist.traditional firewall and antimalware software applications can't see any intrusions. Game players have no defenses.Online gaming sites are a major distribution vehicle for malware.

MMO Security: Are Players Getting Played?

Dangers of Cracking & Keygen Sites:

.warez and crack web pages are being used by cybercriminals as download sites for malware related to VIRUT and VIRUX. Searches for serial numbers, cracks, and even antivirus products like Trend Micro yield malcodes that come in the form of executables or self-extracting files.quick links in these sites also lead to malicious files. Ads and banners are also infection vectors.

Keygen and Crack Sites Distribute VIRUX and FakeAV

Dangers of Warez Sites:

.warez/piracy sites ranked the highest in downloading spyware.just opening the web page usually sets off an exploit, never mind actually downloading anything. And by the time the malware is finished downloading, often the machine is trashed and rendered useless.

University of Washington spyware study

When you use these kind of programs, be forewarned that some of the most aggressive types of malware infections can be contracted and spread by visiting/using crack, keygen, warez and  pirated software sites. In many cases, those sites are infested with a smörgåsbord of malware and an increasing source of system infection which can result in the encryption of all your most valuable data, in many cases beyond recovery.


:step5: Infections spread by using torrent, peer-to-peer (P2P) and file sharing programs. They are a security risk which can make your computer susceptible to asmörgåsbord of malware infections, remote attacks, exposure of personal information, and identity theft. In some cases the computer could be turned into a botnetor zombie. File sharing networks are thoroughly infected and infested with malware according to Senior Virus Analyst, Norman ASA. Malicious worms, backdoor TrojansIRCBots, and rootkits spread across P2P file sharing networks, gaming, porn and underground sites.

Users visiting such pages may see innocuous-looking banner ads containing code which can trigger pop-up ads and malicious Flash ads that install viruses, Trojans, and spyware.

Ads are a target for hackers because they offer a stealthy way to distribute malware to a wide range of Internet users. Hackers are also known to exploit Flash vulnerabilities which can lead to malware infection. When visiting a website that hosts an HTML page which requires a Flash script, users may encounter a malicious Flash redirector or malicious script specifically written to exploit a vulnerability in the Flash Interpreter which causes it to execute automatically in order to infect a computer.

Keep in mind that even legitimate websites can display malicious ads and be a source of malware infection.

.Internet users are 21 times more likely to become infected by visiting a legitimate online shopping site than by visiting a site used for illegal file-sharing.The problem isn't in the sites themselves; it's in the ads.

Mainstream Websites More Likely to Harbor Malware

.According to Ciscos annual 2013 Security Report internet users are 182 times more likely to get malware from clicking on online ads than visiting a porn site.

Clicking Online Ads More Likely To Deliver Malware Than Surfing Porn Sites
Cisco Annual Security Report: Threats Step Out of the Shadows

:step6: Infection can also spread by visiting popular social sites and through emails containing links to websites that exploit security hole's in your web browser. When you click on an infected email link or spam, Internet Explorer launches a site that stealthy installs a Trojan so that it can run every time you startup Windows and download more malicious files. Email attachments ending with a .exe, .com, .bat, or .pif from unknown sources can be malicious and deliver dangerous Trojan downloaders, worms and viruses which can utilize your address book to perpetuate its spread to others.

At least one in 10 web pages are booby-trapped with malware.The tricks include hacking into a web server to plant malware, or planting it within third-party widgets or advertising.About eight out of every 10 Web browsers are vulnerable to attack by exploits.Even worse, about 30% of browser plug-ins are perpetually unpatched.

One in 10 web pages laced with malware
Bulk of browsers found to be at risk of attack

Researchers at the Global Security Advisor Research Blog have reported finding pornographic virus variants on Facebook. The Koobface Worm has been found to attack both Facebook and MySpace users. Virus Bulletin has reported MySpace attacked by worm, adware and phishing. Some MySpace user pages have been found carrying the dangerous Virut. Malware has been discovered on YouTube and it continues to have a problem with malware ads. MSN Messenger, AIM and other Instant Messaging programs are also prone to malware attacks.


:step7: Infections can spread when using a Process Lasso Pro 10.2 Crack For Windows Free drive. In fact, one in every eight malware attacks occurs via a USB device. This type of infection usually involve malware that modifies/loads an autorun.inf (text-based configuration) file into the root folder of all drives (internal, external, removable) along with a malicious executable. Autorun.inf can be exploited to allow a malicious program to run automatically without the user knowing since it is a loading point for legitimate programs. When removable media such as a CD/DVD is inserted (mounted), autorun looks for autorun.inf and automatically executes the malicious file to run silently on your computer. For flash drives and other USB storage, autorun.ini uses the Windows Explorer's right-click context menu so that the standard "Open" or "Explore" command starts the file. Malware modifies the context menu (adds a new default command) and redirects to executing the malicious file if the "Open" command is used or double-clicking on the drive icon. When a flash drive becomes infected, the Trojan will infect a system when the removable media is inserted if autorun has not been disabled. Keeping autorun enabled on USB and other removable drives has become asignificant security risk as they are one of the most common infection vectors for malware which can transfer the infection to your computer.

To learn more about this risk, please read:

Many security experts recommend you disable Autorun as a method of prevention and to Maximize the Protection of your Removable Drives. Microsoft recommends doing the same.

Note: If using Windows 7, be aware that in order to help prevent malware from spreading, the Windows 7 engineering team made important changes and improvements to AutoPlay so that it will no longer support the AutoRun functionality for non-optical removable media.

:step8: Other types of infections spread by downloading malicious applets, Clickjacking or by visiting legitimate web sites that have been compromised through various hacking techniques (i.e. Cross-Site Scripting, Wondershare fotophire full - Free Activators Request Forgery) used to host and deliver malware via malicious code, automated SQL Injection (injecting HTML code that will load a JavaScript redirector) and exploitation of the browser/operating system vulnerabilities.

.More than 90 percent of these webpages belong to legitimate sites that have been compromised through hacking techniques such as SQL Injection.Hackers are apparently planting viruses into websites instead of attaching them to email. Users without proper security in place get infected by simply clicking on these webpages.

One webpage gets infected by virus every 5 seconds

:step9:Phishing is an Internet scam that uses spoofed email and fraudulent Web sites which appear to come from or masquerade as legitimate sources. The fake emails and web sites are designed to fool respondents into disclosing sensitive personal or financial data which can then be used by criminals for financial or identity theft. The email directs the user to visit a web site where they are asked to update personal information such as passwords, user names, and provide credit card, social security, and bank account numbers, that the legitimate organization already has. Spear Phishing is a highly targeted and coordinated phishing attack using spoofed email messages directed against employees or members within a certain company, government agency, organization, or group. These fraudulent emails and web sites, however, may also contain malicious code which can spread infection.

 Pharming is a technique used to redirect as many users as possible from the legitimate commercial websites they intended to visit and lead them to fraudulent ones. The bogus sites, to which victims are redirected without their knowledge, will likely look the same as a genuine site. However, when users enter their login name and password, the information is captured by criminals. Pharming involves Trojans, worms, or other technology that attack the browser and can spread infection. When users type in a legitimate URL address, they are redirected to the criminal's web site. Another way to accomplish these scam is to attack or "poison the DNS" (domain name system) rather than individual machines. In this case, everyone who enters a valid URL will instead automatically be taken to the scammer's site.
:step10:Tech Support Scamming through unsolicited phone calls, browser pop-ups and emails from "so-called Support Techs" advising "your computer is locked or infected with malware", “all your files are encrypted", "suspicious ransomware activity"and other fake messages has become an increasing common scam tactic over the past several years. The scams may involve phishing emails or web pages with screenshots of fake Microsoft (Windows) Support messages, fake reports of suspicious activity, fake warnings of malware found on your computer, fake ransomware and fake BSODs many of which include a phone number to call in order to fix the problem. If you call the phone number (or they called you), scammers will talk their victims into allowing them remote control access of the computer so they can install a Remote Access Trojan in order to steal passwords and other sensitive personal information which could then be used to access bank accounts or steal a person's identity.

Extortion (Sextortion) Scamming is a tactic involving phishing emails / email spoofing sent to unsuspecting victims where the criminals make various threats with demands for money in exchange to keep salacious, derogatory information (photos, videos) or other sensitive personal information they collected about you from being published or sent to family, friends, social media contacts, etc. The scammers may claim they know your password, hacked your computer and/or email account and have compromising photos or videos of you watching pornography on an adult web site or pleasuring yourself while watching porn. The scammers often claim they were able to obtain these photos or videos by installing malware malware with a keylogger and using Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) to remotely control your computer screen and webcam. In addition to K-Lite Mega Codec Pack Product Key - Crack Key For U websites with adult content, the personal information collected or captured on video or photographs could relate to any number of accusations such as compromising sexual situations, inappropriate behavior with a child, infidelity, stealing from your employer, etc, all of which could scare a victim into paying the extortion amount regardless if not true.
The next part of the scam is a threat to expose those videos or the sensitive information unless you pay them a certain amount of money in Bitcoin. The scammers typical threaten to release it to your spouse, family, friends, law enforcement authorities or government related agencies which may be interested. Scammers may even claim they have stolen sensitive business records or financial data from your computer which they intend to release or delete unless you send them a certain sum of Bitcoin. Extortion scams have become so prolific that agencies like the U.S. Department of Justice have released Extortion Scam Alerts to warn the public.

For more information about how these scams work and resources to protect yourself, please read Beware of Phony Emails & Tech Support Scams.

Finally, backing up infected files, is a common source of reinfection if they are restored to your computer. Generally, you can back up all your important documents, personal data files, photos to a CD or DVD drive, not a flash drive or external hard drive as they may become compromised in the process. The safest practice is not to backup any executable files (*.exe), screensavers (*.scr), autorun (.ini) or script files (.php. asp. htm. html. xml ) files because they may be infected by malware. Avoid backing up compressed files (.zip. cab. rar) that have executables inside them as some types of malware can penetrate compressed files and infect the .exe files within them. Other types of malware may even disguise itself by hiding a file extension or by adding double file extensions and/or space(s) in the file's name to hide the real extension so be sure you look closely at the full file name. If you cannot see the file extension, you may need to reconfigure Windows to show file name extensions.

Now that you know How malware spreads, you may want to read Best Practices for Safe Computing - Prevention which includes tips to protect yourself against malware infection.

Edited by quietman7, 21 April 2021 - 08:45 PM.

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Источник: https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/forums/t/287710/how-malware-spreads-how-your-system-gets-infected/
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